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55 Cards in this Set

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What is the Cell Theory?
1)All living things are made of cells
2) all cells come from pre-existing cells
3)cells are the basic unit of structure and function of all living things
Cells have things in common and what do they do?
1)plasma or cell membrane (outer covering of the cell)
2) allows certain thing in/out of the cell but not others
What do cell membranes have?
*phospholipid bi-layer
*protein channels
*carbohydrates
What is the control center for the cell?
Nucleus
What is the material between the cell membrance and the nucleus?
cytoplasm
tiny structures that perform a specific function in a cell
organelles
powerhouse for the cell
mitochondria
converts solar energy into usable energy for plants
chloroplast
makes proteins
ribosomes
transports material in the cell
ER (endophlasmic reticulum)
modifies protiens and packages materials for cellular use
Golgi Apparatus
digests unwanted material in the cell
lysosomes
stores materials such as water, salt, proteins, and carbohydrates
vacuoles
stores food and pigments for plants
plastids
rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane in plants
cell wall
plant characteristics
*all green
*most are rooted in soil
*there are 250,000 species
roots
*below the ground
*anchor the plant
*absorb water and nutrients
*stores photosynthesis products
*transports water, minerals, photosynthetic products
shoots
*leaves, stem with brances, buds, flowers and fruits
*perform photosynthesis
*transport materials
*reproduction
*produce hormones
*gas exchange
seeds
fertilized ovule(part of the ovary) or zygote
fruit
ripened ovary with seeds
equation (photosynthesis)
6CO2 + 6H20 -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
an organism that produces its own food fromt he sun
autotroph
an organism that must consume its food
heterotroph
colored substance that absorbs or reflects light
pigment
pigment primarily used by green plants
chlorophyll
red and blue but reflects green
absorbs
ADP means
Adenosine Diphosphate
stages of photosynthesis
*light reactions
*dark reactions
equation (light reactions)
CO2 + H20 + NADO + ADP -> (sunlight) O2 + ATP + NADPH
Another name for Dark reaction
Calvin Cycle
Does not require this, but can and does happen in the presence of it
light
equation for Dark reaction
2ATP + 2NADPH ->Glucose + 2NADP+ +2ADP + CO2
chemical process that uses oxygen to convert food energy into ATP
cellular respiration
where does the chemical process of cellular respiration happen?
mitochondria
a process that requires oxygen
aerobic
happens outside the mitochondria
glycolysis
how many ATP are produced at the end of glycosis?
2 ATP net
verbs cycle (Hans) produces
4 CO2 + 2ATP
Stages of respiration ETC can produce up to ___ per glucose nolecule
34 ATP
Stages of respiratin ETC has a total of ___ ATP is produces
38
Equation respiration
C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38ATP
process by which molecules of a substance move from the areas of high concentration of that substance to areas of lower concentration
diffusion
energy used in material movement
no energy is used
diffusion of water molecules across a membrane
osmosis
How much energy is required in osmosis?
none
Facilitated Diffusion-carrier protein helps certain molecules across the cell membrane to areas of lower concentration--how much energy is required?
little energy is required
actively moving molecules across the cell membrane
active transport
carry calcium ions (Ca+2), potassium ions (K+), and sodium ions (Na+)
membrane pumps
cell membrane folds around molecules and brings them into the cell - for large molecules
endocytosis
process that cells use to get ATP from glucose when there is not enough oxygen to go through cellular respiration
fermentation
produce NAD (requirement for glycolysis) so glycolysis can continue
lactic acid fermentation
produced in the muscles during rapid exercise when the muscles cannot get enough oxygen
lactic acid fermentation
lactic acid fermentation causes soreness after this
exercise
yeast and a few other microorganisms can do this
alcoholic fermentation
what is produced in alcoholic fermentation?
alcohol and carbon dioxide