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28 Cards in this Set

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Chemical Evolution
Simple chemical compounds in the atmosphere and ocean form more complex substances.
Condensation theory
Young planets should be surrounded by dust
Nucleus
Made up of protons and neutrons
elections
orbit around the nucleus, negatively charged
Elements
contain a specific number of protons
Isotypes
Same number of protons, different number of electrons
Mass number
Sum of protons and neutrons: measured in amu (atomic mass unit-dalton)
Radioactive isotope
Nuclei tend to change spontaneously by emitting radiation or a particle (radioactive decay)
Half-life
The time it takes for half of the parent isotope to decay to a particular daughter isotope
Four main atoms:
Hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen
Atomic number
Number of protons; subscript
Mass number
Number of protons and neutrons, superscript
Valence shell
Outershell of an atom
Valence
The number of unpaired electrons found in an atom
Covalent bonds
Atoms held together by shared electrons.
Molecules
Substances held together by covalent bonds
Nonpolar covalent bond
A covalent bond that is symmetrical(equal sharring of electrons)
Polar covalent bonds
Asymmetric sharing of electrons
Electronegativity
the tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards itself
Ionic bonds
Electrons are completely transferred from one atom to the other
Ion
Atom/molecule that is charged
Cation
Positively charged ion
Anion
Negatively charged ion
Methane
CH4
Water
H2O
Sodium Chloride
NACL
Mole
6.022x10^23; the mass of one mole of any molecule is the same as its molecular weight expressed in grams.
Molarity
The number of moles per liter of solution