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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2 types of seed plants
gymnosperms and angiosperms
(means naked seed)-development of seeds at surface of reproductive structure-reproduction takes place in cones which are produced by mature plant
confiers--->cones ex. pine
flowering plants-reproduction takes place within protective structures of the flower
flower stem
enlarged end of the pedicel that supports the remainder of the flower
leaflike strcutres that protect the bud before it opens
a complete circle of sepals
usually colorful to attract insects and animals for pollination: surround the reproductive organs
the male reproductive organs of flowers: made up of anther and filament
top of the stamen: where cells undergo meiosis, producing haploid (monoploid) male gametophytes-pollen grains
long, thin stalk that supports the anther-elevates anther for increase in insect interaction or wind dispersal
pistil (aka carpel)
female reproductive organs of flowers: produces the female gametophytes; 3 parts: stigma, style, and ovary
top of the pistil- has a sticky surface to collect pollen grains
support stalk of the stigma and a conducting tube--connects stigma and ovary
bottom of pistil-contains the ouvle-develps into a fruit
inside the ovary-where the female gametophytes are produced by meiosis
pollination definition
the tranfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma
a) from the anther to the stigma of the same flower
b) from the anther to the stigma of a different flower on the same plant
from the anther to the stigma of a flower on a different plant
whats the plus of cross-pollination and the minus of self-pollination?
cross-pollination=increases genetic make-up
self-pollination=limits genetic make-up
artificial pollination
pollination with human interaction
what are ways of transporting pollen?
wind, water, insects, and animals (ex. birds and bats)
what are flowers ways of attracting things to it for pollination???
1) petals
2) nectars
3) fragrances (ex. good smells, bad smells-flies)
a sugary solution
explain the process of fertilization
1) pollen grain sticks to the stigma
2)pollen grain splits open and begins to grow a pollen tube which reaches the ovary
3)Sperm nucleus produces two haplod sperm
4) One fertilizes the egg, producing a diploid zygote
5) One joins with 2 polar nuclei at the cells center producing endosperm
developed by mitosis and will be used as food by the embryo
zygote in a plant
1. what does the ovule develop into?
2. what does the ovary develop into?
1. seed
2. fruit
what are the two functions of fruit??
1) fruits protect the seed
2) fruits assist in seed dispersal
simple fruit
has a single ovary
ex. cherries, tomatoes
aggregate fruit
several ovaries in 1 flower-strawberries
multiplez fruit
many flowers, form 1 fruit- ex. pineapple
seed leaf/may store food taken from the endosperm-contains nutrients for the developing plant embryo
1 cotyledon
2 cotyleden
becomes the upper portion of the stem and the leaves
becomes the lower portion of the plant (along with the RADICIE) producing roots
explain the life cycle of angiosperms
1) the anther undergoes meoiosis and produces four haploid spore cells-become a single pollen grain
2) the pollen grain undergoes one mitotic division to produce two haplod nuclei
3) the pollen grain is released from the anther and deposited on a stigma
4) a single diploid cell in the ovary goes through meiosis to produce four haploid cells, three of which disintergrate.
5) the remaining cell undergoes mitosis to produce eight nuclei-the embryo sac
6) if fertilization takes place, the egg nucleus will develop into a zygote
embryo sac
eight nuclei from a mitotic divison and the surrounding membrane-the embryo sac is the female gametophyte of a flowering plant
double fertilization
the fertilization iin angiosperms because two fertilization events take place between male and female gametophytes
what are seeds dispersed by animals like?
they are usually contained in fleshy, nutritious fruit which provides nutrients for the animal and also helps the pplant to disperse its seeds
what are seeds dispersed by wind or water like?
they are typically lightweight, allowing them to be carried in the air or to float on the surface of the water.
seed dormancy is when seeds will not grow when they first mature. they enter a period of dormancy during which the embryo is alive but not growing. the length of dormancy varies in different plants
what environmental factors can cause dormancy to end?
temperature and moisture
what are three environmental facors needed for a seed to germinate?
1) oxygen
2) sufficient moisture
3) good temperatures
what are ways that seed dormancy is adaptive?
1) it can allow for long-distance dispersal ex. coconuts
2) it allows seeds to germinate under ideal growth conditions
seed germination
the early growth state of the plant embryo-when the seed begins to grow
why do seeds absorb water when they germinate?
the water causes the endosperm to swell, cracking open the seed coat. Through the cracked seed coat, the young root emerges and begins to grow.
vegetative reproduction
the production of new plants from horizontal stems, from plantlets, and from underground roots
plant propagation
using cuttings, grafting, or budding to make many identical copies of a plant or to produce offspring from a seedless plant
cutting a piece of a plant off and growing a new one
stems are cut off of plants, are attached to a new plant, and are grown