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85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
biology
scientific study of life
biological organization hierachy
1. the biospehere
2. ecosystems
3. communities
4. populations
5. oranisms
6. organs and organ systems
7. tissues
8. cells
9. organelles
10. molecules
producers
plants and other photosynthetic organisms that convert light enerby to chemical energy
consumers
organisms that feed on producers and others like itself
deoxyribonucleic acid
- aka DNA
-partially makes up chromosomes
- made of Genes, which transmit information from parent to offspring
- provides blue prints, but proteins provide tools to build and maintain cell
genome
the "library" of genetic instructions that an organism inherits
eukaryotic cell
-subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane enclosed organelles
- composes plants, animals, protista, and fungi
- has complex organelles
- cell walls only in plants
- double stranded DNA
prokaryotic cell
- composes bacteria
- lacks many organisms
- many cell walls
- simpler
- DNA is not seperated from the rest of the cell by enclosure of a membrane bound nucleus
- single stranded DNA
characteristics of living organisms
- exhibit order
- ability to reproduce
- utilization of energy (metabolism)
- response to external envionmental stimuli
- ability to adapt
- maitenance of homeostasis
cell
the most basic structure in living organisms, capable of carrying out all of the activities fundamental to live

- the structural and fundamental to life
Robert Hooke first documented in 1665 the ________.
cell
Two types of cells
prokaryotes and eukaryotes
The taxonomy
1. Kingdom
2. Phylum
3. Class
4. Order
5. Family
6. Genus
7. Species
what is the most inclusive group of taxonomy?
kingdom
system
a combination of comoponents that form a complex organization
emergent properties
novel properties that emerge that are not present at the level just below
reductionism
reducing complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study
How does the cell coordinate its various chemical pathways?
self regulation by a mechnism called feedback
negative feedback
accumulatin of an end product of a process slows that process
positive feedback
an end product speeds up production in a biological process
domain bacteria and domain bacteria
both consist of prokaryotes
domain Eukarya
all oranisms with eukaryotic cells
ON the Origin of Species
- by Charles Darwin, 1859
- almost synonymous with concept of evolution
- theorized contemporary species arose from a succession of ancestors
- refered to evolution as "descent with modification"
- also proposed a mecanism for descent with modification, aka natural selection
- natural selection could split an ancestral species into to two or more species over a vast amount of time
science
"to know"
inquiry
a search for information and explanation
What scientifc inquiry does biology use?
discovery science and hypothesis based science
data
recorded observations
qualitative
recorded descriptions
quantitative
numerical measurements
inductive reasoning
derive generalizations based on a large number of specific observations
hypothesis
a tentative answer to a well framed question
deductive reasoning
Uses generalizations to find specific answers

Often takes the form of "If.. then" statements
controlled experiment
where an experimental group is compared with a control group

-Researchers control unwanted variables by canceling their effects by using control groups
theory
a much broader hypothesis
- general enough to spin off many new specific hypotheses that can be tested
- generally supported by a massive body of evidence
model
less abstract representations of ideas in science
technology
applies scientific knowledge for some specific purpose
matter
anything that takes up space and has mass
element
substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions
compound
substance consisting of two or more different elements combined to a fixed ratio
trace elements
those required by an organism in only minute quantities
atom
the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of the element
subatomic particle
smaller parts composing tiny bits of matter
Atomic nucleus
- center of the atom
- where neutrons and protons are packed closely togehter to form a dense core
dalton
unit of measurement for atoms and subatomic particles and molecules

aka the atomic mass unit or amu
atomic number
number of protons, which is unique to that element
- written in subscript to left of the symbol for an element
mass number
sum of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

- mass number is written as a superscript
- it is an approximation of the total mass of an atom
atomic mass
total mass of an atom
isotope
when some atoms have more neutrons than other atoms of the same element and therefore have greater mass
radioactive isotope
one in which the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy
energy
capacity to cause change

ex. work
potential energy
energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure
energy levels
different states of potential energy that electrons have in an atom
electron shells
when the electron's energy is correlated with its average distance from the nucleus; these averages are correlated with this symbolically
Can an electron change the shell it occupies?
yes, but only by absorbing or losing an amount of energy equal to the difference in potential energy between its position in the old shell and that in the new shell
what determines chemical behavior of an atom?
electron configuration
valence electrons
- the outermost electron
- chemical behavior of an atom depends mostly on this
valence shell
outermost electron shell
orbital
the three dimensional space where an electron is found 90% of the time
chemical bonds
interaction where atoms stay close together held by attraction
What are the strongest chemical bonds?
covalent and ionic
covalent bonds
sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms
molecule
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
single bond
a pair of shaired electrons
structural formula
lines of notation between element abbreviations that represent both atoms and bonding
molecular formula
element abbreviation followed by subsrript of the how my of that element are in the molecule
double bond
the sharing of two valence electrons
valence
bonding capacity; usually equals the number of unpaired electrons in the valence shell
electronegativity
attraction of a particular kind of atom for the electron of a covalenet bond
when an atom is more electronegative
it is more strongly pulls shared electrons towards itself
monpolar coavalent bond
a covalent bond where the two atoms of the same element are equally electronegative
polar covalent bond
where one atom is bonded to a more electronegative atom, the electrons are not shared equally
ion
a charged atom or molecule
cation
when the charge of an atom or ion is positive
anion
when the charge of an atom or ion is negative
What do cation and anions do?
attract each other b/c of their opposite signs
salts
also known as ioninc compounds

compounds formed by ionic bonds
What does the term ion also apply to?
entire molecules that are electrically charged
hydrogen bonds
hydrogen atom covalentlybonded to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom
vand der Waals interactions
electrons may accummulate by chance in one part of the molecule or another, since they are in constant motion and are not summetrically distributed theroghout a molecule. The results are ever changing "hot spots" of positive and negative charge that enable all atoms and molecules to stick to one another

- think of geckos climbing walls
Molecules have what unique characteristics?
size and shape
Why is molecular shape crucial in biology?
because it determines how biological molecules recognize and respond to one another with specificity. Only molecules with complementary shapes are able to bind to each other by weak bonds
chemical reactions
the making and breaking of chemical bonds that lead to changes in the cmposition of matter
reactants
starting products
products
the creation of the chemical reaction
chemical equilibrium
the point at which the reactions off-set one another exactly. This does not mean that the reactants and producats are equal in concentration, but only that their concentrations have stablized in a particular ratio