Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Structure of a nucleotide
5-carbon sugar, phosphate group, nitrogen base
messenger RNA
carries instructions for amino acid assembly from DNA to rest of cell
transfer RNA
carries each amino acid to the ribosome where proteins are assembled
Base pairing: DNA
A + T
C + G
Base pairing: RNA
A + U
C + G
transforming agent of bacteria
Rosalind Franklin
used x-ray diffraction and found out that DNA has a scattered pattern resembling an X
the duplication of DNA
- DNA molecule separated into 2 strands
- primers bind to the separated DNA to prepare it for duplication
- polymerase enzyme copies DNA
Crick and Watson
used Rosalind Franklin's discovery to realize that the structure of DNA is a double helix.
RNA polymerase binds to DNA to separate the strands. DNA is used as a template to create complementary DNA.
information from mRNA used to make proteins
pieces cut off of RNA; transcribed from eukaryotic genes to become functional
remaining portions which are spliced together to form final RNA
2 types of mutations
point and chromosomal
mechanism of evolution
struggle for existence and natural selection
survival of the fittest
fitness is a result of an organism's ability to adapt to its environment
struggle for existence
species compete constantly for daily necessities of life
evidence of evolution
fossils, geographic distribution, body structure, early development similarities
structure of ATP
phosphate group, ribose molecule, adenine molecule
aerobic vs. anaerobic respiration
aerobic respiration requires oxygen.
importance of an intact mitochondrial membrane in the electron transport chain
diffusion and creation of a gradient over the mitochondrial membrane
lactid acid fermentation
occurs when there is a build up of pyruvic acid after glyclolysis which is transformed into lactid acid
alcoholic fermentation
occurs in yeast and a few other micro-organisms; forms ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide as waste products
when a molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing pyruvic acid and 4 ATP (but net gain only 2)
- body cell
- one nuclear division
- daughter cell is identical to mother cell
- diploid
stem cells
cells that can grow into anything
eukaryotic cells
- membrane bound nucleus
- many organelles separated from other cytoplasm components
- no nucleus
- contain no organelles
oldest prokaryote, "mother of us all", found at bottom of sea
newer prokaryote, found in hot springs
mammals, multicellular, heterotrophic
autotrophs, photosynthesize, multicellular
contains largest known single organism, break down dead organic materials to cycle nutrients through ecosystem
eukaryotes, unicellular, aquatic habitats
sex linked traits
- prominence in males
- location
- men have one X chromosome and all X linked alleles expressed
- located on X or Y chromosome
selective breeding
species improved by allowing only organisms w/ desired traits to reproduce
when a cell takes in DNA from outside of the cell into its own DNA
ex. cloning
gel electophoresis
- process
a procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments
- DNA fragments poured into the wells on one side of the gel, electric voltage makes the fragments move from negative to positive; shorter fragment move further
restriction enzymes
cuts DNA
DNA fingerprinting
analysis of sections of DNA that have no known function, in order to identify people
allows biologists to make many copies of a particular gene
transgenic organisms
contain genes from other organisms
- protostome
- deuterostome development
- mouth formed first
- anus formed first
- sex cell
- 2 nuclear divisions
- daughter cell is not the same as parent cell
- haploid
descent w/ modification
every species has developed from another species over time, w/ adaptations
multiple alleles
- ex. blood typing
when there are more than two alleles
- A, B, i for blood type
protein synthesis
protein made from amino acids; on a chain of RNA, if the nitrogen bases divided into groups of 3, they make codons which code for an amino acid
raw materials of evolution
mutations, struggle for existence, descent w/ modification, survival of the fittest
gene linkage
genes for traits are always inherited together; chromosomes are actually linked genes and they assort independently