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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Steroids
A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached.

Amino Acid
An organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. Amino acids serve as the monomers of proteins.
Nitrogenous Base
An organic base that contains the element nitrogen.

Functional Group
A specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions.

Polypeptide
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.

Fat (triacylglycerol)
A biological compound consisting of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule.

Hydrolysis
A chemical process that lyses, or splits, molecules by the addition of water; an essential process in digestion.

Protein
A three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids.
Amino Group
A functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; can act as a base in solution, accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of +1.

Saturated
Pertaining to fats and fatty acids whose hydrocarbon chains contain the maximum number of hydrogens and therefore have no double covalent bonds. Saturated fats and fatty acids solidify at room temperature.
Cellulose
A structural polysaccharide of cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by b-1, 4-glycosidic linkages.

Nucleotide
The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.

Disaccharide
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.

Phosphate Group
A functional group important in energy transfer.

Macromolecule
A giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a condensation reaction. Polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are macromolecules.

Polysaccharide
A polymer of up to over a thousand monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions.

Triglyceride
A fat, which consists of a molecule of glycerol linked to three fatty acids.

Starch
A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose.



Unsaturated
Pertaining to fats and fatty acids whose hydrocarbon chains lack the maximum number of hydrogen atoms and therefore have one or more double covalent bonds. Unsaturated fats and fatty acids do not solidify at room temperature.

Enzyme
A protein serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.

Gene
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).

Monosaccharide
The simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, the molecular formulas of monosaccharides are generally some multiple of CH2O.

Nucleic Acid
A polymer (polynucleotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. The two types are DNA and RNA.

Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.

Dehydration Synthesis or Condensation
A chemical process in which a polymer forms as monomers are linked by the removal of water molecules. One molecule of water is removed for each pair of monomers linked.

Organic Compound
A chemical compound containing the element carbon and usually synthesized by cells.
Carbon Skeleton
The chain of carbon atoms in organic molecules.
Carbohydrate
A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides).

Polymer
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.
Glucose
A common monosaccharide of central importance in the chemistry of life. Forms polysaccharides starch, glycogen and cellulose.
Lipid
One of a family of compounds, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids, that are insoluble in water.

Monomer
The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer.

Glycogen
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.

Peptide Bond
The covalent bond between two amino acid units, formed by a dehydration reaction.