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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
RESPIRATORY
TRACT
Pathway of gas exchange
between an orgaism and
their environment.
WHAT ARE THE
TWO TYPES OF
RESPIRATION?
Direct Respiration

Indirect Respiration
WHAT IS
DIRECT
RESPIRATION?
Direct Respiration:
Gas exchange between
an organism and
and its environment
WHAT IS
INDIRECT
RESPIRATION?
Cells not exposed to
the environment.
Gases are brought
to the cells by the
blood stream.
WHAT ARE THE
STAGES OF
RESPIRATION?
External Respiration

Internal Respiration
WHAT IS
EXTERNAL
RESPIRATION?
External Respiration:

Exchange of gases
between environment
and blood.
WHAT IS
INTERNAL
RESPIRATION?
Gas exchange
between blood & cells.
WHAT ARE
THE NECESSARY
FACTORS?
Warm, moist air
Large surface area
WHAT ARE THE
MECHANISMS FOR
BREATHING?
Breathing
Diaphragm
Inspiration
Expiration
WHAT IS
BREATHING?
Movement of air
into and out of
the lungs.
WHAT IS
THE DIAPHRAGM?
Large muscle at the
base of the thoracit
cavity.
WHAT IS
INSPIRATION?
(breathing)
Ribs up and out
Diaphragm down and flat
Stomach relaxes
WHAT IS THE
RESULT OF
INSPIRATION?
(breathing)
Thoracic cavity increases
air pressure decreases
Air moves in
WHAT IS
EXPIRATION?
(breathing)
Ribs down and in
Diaphragm
relaxes & goes up
Stomach contracts
WHAT IS THE
RESULT OF
EXPIRATION?
(breathing)
Thoracic cavity decreases
air pressure increases
Air moves out
WHAT IS
DIGESTION?
The breakdown of
complex food
materials into smaller
molecules.
WHAT ARE THE
TWO TYPES OF
DIGESTION?
Mechanical Digestion


Chemical Digestion
WHAT IS
MECHANICAL
DIGESTION?
The physical breakdown
of foods by grinding,
tearing & mixing.
WHAT IS
CHEMICAL
DIGESTION?
Enzymes break down
complex molecules
into simple molecules.
DIGESTIONS TRACT
(if you were going down it)
Oral Cavity
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
Anus
Potty
HOW LONG
IS THE
DIGESTIVE TRACT?
An adult's digestive tract
is about 30 feet
(about 9 meters) long.
ANATOMY OF
THE MOUTH
Bolus: Masticates and lubricates food
Teeth: Used to chew (mastication/cut/tear/grind)
Enamel
Tongue: Manipulate Food
Salivary Glands: Lubricant
(99% water) Amilaze
PHARYNX
Back of the throat.
Swallowing (Deglutition).
WHAT IS SWALLOWING?
Becomes a voluntary
action as the phrarynx
passes food to the
esophagus which then
becomes involuntary.
EPIGLOTTIS
Tissue like flap that
covers the trachea
when swallowing.
ESOPHAGUS
Connect phrarynx to
the stomach.
Paristalsis
WHAT IS PARISALSIS?
Wave-like muscular
contraction if the
alimentary canal.
STOMACH
Cardiac Sphincter
Pyloric Sphincter
Holds & mixes chyme
Muscle action mixes
food w/ enzymes and HCI
Strong HCI kills cells,
loosens tough fibrous
material, erodes cementing
material between cells.
PANCREAS
Neutralizes stomach acid
by secreting a basic solution.
Produces insulen which
regulates blood sugar.
Secretes digestive enzymes
(proteases).
WHAT ORGAN
PRODUCES INSULIN?
The Pancreas
LIVER
Bile made; helps to emulsify.
Filters toxic substances from blood.
Stores glycogen & vitamins.
Gets rid of waste (urea)
WHAT IS EMULSIFY?
to convert into an
emulsion. Emulsion:
a preparation of one
liquid distributed in
small globules throughout
the body of a second liquid
WHAT IS UREA?
The final nitrogenous
excretion product of
many organisms. The chief
solid component of urine.
GALL
BLADDER
Found directly belwo the liver
Storage facility for extra bile.
SMALL INTESTINE
Digestion and nutrient
absorbtion; more enzymes;
Villi
WHAT ARE VILLI?
In the small intestine,
fingerlike structures
which help increase
surface acre for absorbtion
of nutrients.
LARGE INTESTINE
Water Absorbtion
E.Coli lives here.
CIRCULATORY
SYSTEM
FUNCTION
Delivers Nutrients & O2
to every cell in the body.
Carries waste materials
out of every cell in the body.
BLOOD
COMPOSITION
(Circulatory System)
Red blood cells (RBCs)
White Blood Cells
Platelets
Plasma
RED BLOOD
CELLS
(Circulatory System)
Red blood cells (RBCs):
Transport O2
Hemoglobin: Binds O2 to cells
Made in the spleen
WHAT IS
HEMOGLOBIN?
The molecule in the red
blood cell that carries
oxygen. Hemoglobin combines
with oxygen in the lungs and
releases it in the tissues. It is what makes blood red.
WHITE BLOOD
CELLS
(Circulatory System)
When a germ or infection
enters the body, WBCs
race toward the scene.
Defense & immune system
against desease.
WHAT ARE
PLATELETS
(Circulatory System)
Platelets:
Protein fragments
circulating in blood involved
with blood clotting
Fibrin
WHAT IS
FIBRIN?
Fibrin is a protein involved
in the clotting of blood.
(Platelets)
WHAT IS
PLASMA?
Blood plasma is the liquid
component of blood, in which
the blood cells are suspended.
Plasma makes up about 65%
of blood.
NAME THE 5
TYPES OF
BLOOD VESSELS?
(Circulatory System)
Artories
Arterioles
Capillaries
Venules
Veins
ARTORIES
Artories:
Carry oxygenated blood
from the heart to the
rest of the body.
Thick, muscular walls.
ARTERIOLES
An arteriole is a small
diameter blood vessel that
extends and branches out
from an artery and leads
to capillaries.
CAPILLARIES
Capillaries are smallest of
the blood vessels. Tiny &
thin walled, they connect
arterioles and venules.
VENULES
A venule is a small vein.
VEINS
Veins carry deoxygenated
blood back to the heart
from the body.
Thinned-walled valves in
the large veins stop backflow.
THE HEART
The heart is a hollow,
muscular organ which
pumps blood through
the blood vessels by
repeated, rhythmic
contractions. Double pump.
THE RIGHT SIDE
OF THE HEART
Right Side:
Recieves deoxygenated
blood from the body.
Sends this blood to the
lungs to receive oxygen.
THE RIGHT SIDE
OF THE HEART
Left Side:
Recieves oxygenated
blood from the lungs
and sends it out to the
body.
HEART ANATOMY
Parts of the Heart
Right Atrium
Right Ventrical
Left Atrium
Left Ventricle
HEART:
WHAT DOES
THE RIGHT
ATRIUM DO?
Right Atrium:
Receives deoxygenated
blood from the Venae Cavae.
Blood is pushed through the
A.V. valve into the right ventricle.
WHAT IS THE
VENAE CAVAE?
the veins that return the
deoxygenated blood from
the body into the heart.
WHAT ARE THE
A.V. VALVES?
The two Atrioventricular
Valves ensure blood flows
from the atria to the ventricles,
and not the other way.
WHAT DOES THE
RIGHT
VENTRICLE
DO?
Receives deoxygenated
blood the the Right Atrium (RA).
Pumps blood through he S.L. Valve
into the pulmanary artery into
the lungs where it recieves oxygen.
WHAT ARE
THE S.L. VALVES?
The two Semilunar Valves
are present in the arteries
leaving the heart, and they
prevent blood flowing back
from the arteries into the
ventricles.
WHAT ARE
THE
PULMONARY
ARTERIES?
The Pulmonary Arteries carry
blood from the heart to the
lungs. They carry deoxygenated
blood.
WHAT ARE
THE
PULMONARY
VEINS?
The pulmonary veins carry
oxygen rich blood from the
lungs to the Left Atrium of the
heart.
WHAT DOES
THE
LEFT ATRIUM
DO?
Oygenated blood returns
to the left atrium & is pushed
through an AV Valve into the
Left Ventricle.
WHAT DOES
THE LEFT
VENTRICLE DO?
Oygenated blood is pumped
out through SL Valve into the
Aorta & out to the body.
WHAT IS
THE AORTA?
The largest artery in the
body, originating from the
left ventricle of the heart
and bringing oxygenated blood
to all parts of the body.
WHAT IS
"LUB DUB"
The sound the heart
makes when the AV
valves and the SL Valves
shut.
WHAT MAKES "LUB"
OF LUB-DUB?
Ventricular contraction
AKA Systole
SOund made when AV Valve shuts.
WHAT MAKES
"DUB"
OF LUB-DUB?
Sound made by the closing
of the SL Valves. Ventricular
relaxation. AKA Diastole.
WHAT IS
DIASTOLE?
Diastole is the period of time
when the heart relaxes after
contraction.
WHAT IS
VENTRICULAR
DIASTOLE?
Ventricular Diastole is when
the ventricles are relaxing.
WHAT IS
SYSTOLE?
Systole is the contraction
of the chambers of the
heart, driving blood out
of the chambers.
COMMON HEART
PROBLEMS:
Arrhythmia
(Irregular Heartbeat)
Bradycardia
(Heart-rate less than 60 bpm)
Tachycardia
(Heart-rate greater than 100 bpm)
Fibrillation (Ventrical)
Myocardial Infarction
NERVOUS SYSTEM
A complex system of cells that communicate with each other.
-Neuron
-Nerve Impulses
IN THE NERVOUS
SYSTEM, WHAT IS
A NEURON?
A Nerve cell that
transmits electrical
signals
WHAT IS THE
NEURON
STRUCTURE?
Long, thin structure
that transmits an
electrical signal.
PARTS OF THE
NEURON
STRUCTURE?
Myelin Sheath
Dendrite
Synaptic Cleft
Neuro Transmitters
MYELIN SHEATH
(NEURON STRUCTURE)
A pi[id layer that covers
the neuron, insulates the
axon, and speeds up
transmission of action
potentials.
DENDRITE
(NEURON STRUCTURE)
Part of the neuron that
receives signals from the
axon.
SYNAPTIC CLEFT
(NEURON STRUCTURE)
A small gap between an
axon and a dendrite.
This is the area where
"synapse" occurs.
NEURO TRANSMITTERS
(NEURON STRUCTURE)
Electrical stimulus in the
neuron triggers the
release of chemicals into
the Synaptic Cleft.
These chemicals trigger
electrical activity in a
second neuron.
WHAT IS AN AXON?
(NEURON STRUCTURE)
An axon, or nerve fiber,
is a long slender projection
of a nerve cell, or neuron,
that conducts electrical
impulses away from the
neuron's cell body.
NERVOUS SYSTEM
TYPES
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
CENTRAL
NERVOUS
SYSTEM
Brain & Spinal cord
PERIPHERIAL
NERVOUS
SYSTEM
Afferent Neurons
Efferent Neurons
Reflex
AFFERENT
NEURONS
Sensory neurons that
collect info from the
body and send it to
the CNS
EFFERENT
NEURONS
Motor neurons that
send info away from
the CNS
REFLEX
An involuntary movement
from stimulus
(skips the brain)
AUTONOMIC
NERVOUS
SYSTEM
Controls the internal
body conditions such
as respiratioin and heart
WHAT ARE THE
DIVISIONS OF THE
AUTONOMIC
NERVOUS SYSTEM?
Sympathetic Division
Parasympathetic Division
WHAT IS
SYMPATHETIC
DIVISON?
Sympathetic Division: Can
redirect blood flow away
from the digestive organs,
toward the heart & muscles.
Controls activities that
increase energy expenditures.
WHAT IS
PARASYMPATHETIC
DIVISON?
Parasympathetic Division:
Controls activities that conserve energy expenditures.
Causes organs to resume
normal activity.