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43 Cards in this Set

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The attraction between the positive end of one water molecule to the negitive eond of another.
Hydrogen Bond
Water takes a lot of energy to increase its energy. This means it has a ....
High Specific Heat
Water molecules have a strong tendancy to stick together.
Cohesion
Water molecules like to stick to other substances.
They are adhesive
The combination of cohesion and adhesion accounts for the ability of water to rise hundreds of feet up through roots, trunks, and branches of the largest trees.
Capillary action
Carbohydrates, lipids, protiens, and nucleic acids are all ...
Macromolecules
Carbohydrates in their simplest form. (Cannot be broken down into smaller carbs)
Monosaccharides
One monosaccharide plus another monosaccharide equals....
Disaccharide
Hydrogen bonds that form between carbohydrate molecules result in forming bigger and more comples carbohydrate molecules.....
Polysaccharides
Plants use __________ to store glucose.
Starch
Animales use ___________ to store glucose.
Glycogen
special protiens that serve important biochemical functions, as they assist chemical reactions that take place inside the cells of organisms.
Enzymes
Twenty different ____________ function as the building blocks of all protiens in living things.
Amino acids
Joining two amino acid groups together through dehydration synthesis forms a...
Dipeptide
Three or more amino acids chemically bonded together through dehydration synthesis forms a......
Polypeptide
A group of organic molecules that are insoluble- do not dissolve - in water.
Lipids
Most abundant macoromlecules found in living things. They are key structural elements in almost all living things.
Protiens
Macromolecules made up of repeating units called nuleotides.
Nucleic Acids
Stores genetic information.
DNA
The energy needed for a reaction to start.
Activation energy
Molecules, that when added to a chemical reaction, will speed up the rate at which products are formed by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to start.
Catalysts
In an enzyme-aided reaction, reactants are called...
substrates
Special organic molecules called __________- are found in low concentrations in organic systems, or are generated on an as needed basis to assist enzymes in their catalytic functions.
Coenzymes
Organisms that are able to make their own food from inorganic sources. Plants/ Algaes
Autotrophs
Need "ready made" macromoleules to satisfy their energy requirment.
Hetertrophs
Each cell contains _________,tiny compartments where specific processes take place.
organelles
In plants they are the sites for the initial stage of photosynthesis.
Chloroplasts
If oxygen is present, ATP is produced by.....
Aerobic respiration
If oxygen is not present, ATP is produced by.....
Anaerobic respiration
Organelles in which the actual energy production step takes place.
Mitochondria
Small, single celled organisms that lack internal membrane bound organelles.
Prokaryotes
Command center of the cell - directs the inner workings and enables it to reproduce.
Nucleus
Small, membrane bound organelles located in the cytoplasm. They help manufacture the protiens required by the cell.
Ribosomes
A Network of membrane-bound canals that transport lipids and protien products to other locations in the cell.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
These organelles contain digestive enzymes that break down carbohydrates, lipids, protiens, and nucleic acids. The clean up crew of the cell.
Lysomes
Store any macromolecules, wastes, or products that will be transported out of the cell. They also help maintain a plants rigid,upright shape.
Vacuoles
The poweer or gas stations of the cell. They convert potential energy in to energy that the cell can use.
Mitochondria
Organelles that contain pigments in organisms such as green plants or algae.
Chloroplasts
Cylinder shaped organelles that are found near the nucleus. They assist in cellular division.
Centrioles
The medium inside the cell in which organelles are suspended.
Cytoplasm
A phospholipid bilayer that surrounds a cell to seperate its contents from the surrounding enviroment.
Plasma Membrane
Rigid structure found in some eukaryotic organisms, such as plants, fungi, and algae. Its job is to surround the cell membrane and protect its contents.
Cell wall
Any process tjat requires the use of energy to move substances across the cell membrane against the concentration gradient.
Active transport