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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Somatic Cells
- body cells
- 46 chromosomes
Gametes
- sex cells
- egg / sperm
- 26 chromosomes
Why is cell size limited?
(3 reasons)
- diffusion decreases as cell grows in size
- will take longer for waste to exit cell, or for building blocks to enter cell
- protein production decreased
chromatin
- DNA when cell isn't dividing
- loosely packed DNA that wraps around proteins (histones)
chromosomes
- DNA when cell is dividing
- composed on tightly bound chromatin
Why do cells divide?
(4 reasons)
- replace old worn cells
- replace damaged cells
- for organism can grow
- for reproduction to occur
cell cycle
1. interphase
2. prophase
3. metaphase
4. anaphase
5. telophase
6. cytokinesis
interphase subphases
(3 phases, 1 alternative)
1. G1 (growth)
2. S (synthesis)
3. G2
4. G0 (never reaches restriction point, doesn't divide; ex brain/nerve/heart)
G1
Interphase subphase #1
- period of rapid cell growth
- lasts 11 hours
S
Interphase subphase #2
- will begin if restriction point is passed
- DNA synthesized / chromosomes copied
- lasts 7 hours
G2
Interphase subphase #3
- all organelles copy
- lasts 3 hours
Prophase
Mitosis step 1 ( __ / Metaphase)
- DNA coils, becomes chromosomes
- chromosomes have already duplicated themselves and have 2 identical halves called "sister chromatids"
Metaphase
Mitosis step 2 (Prophase / Anaphase)
- chromosomes (sister chromatids) line up along equator
Anaphase
Mitosis step 3 (Metaphase / Telophase)
- all sister chromatids split
- 1 chromatid moves to each side of cell
- remember each cell only gets 46
Telophase
Mistosis step 4a (Anaphase / Cytokinesis)
- nucleus reappears
- chromosomes uncoil into chromatin
Cytokinesis
Mitosis step 4b (Telophase / __ )
- cytoplasm breaks in two

END: 2 identical cells
diploid
cells w/ double set of chromosomes
haploid
cells w/ single set of chromosomes
homologous chromosomes
- 2 chromosomes that are similar in structure
- each contains same genes
Mitosis
- formation of gametes
- produces 4 cells; each is 1/2 original chromosome number
G2
Interphase subphase #3
- all organelles copy
- lasts 3 hours
Prophase
Mitosis step 1 ( __ / Metaphase)
- DNA coils, becomes chromosomes
- chromosomes have already duplicated themselves and have 2 identical halves called "sister chromatids"
Metaphase
Mitosis step 2 (Prophase / Anaphase)
- chromosomes (sister chromatids) line up along equator
Anaphase
Mitosis step 3 (Metaphase / Telophase)
- all sister chromatids split
- 1 chromatid moves to each side of cell
- remember each cell only gets 46
Telophase
Mistosis step 4a (Anaphase / Cytokinesis)
- nucleus reappears
- chromosomes uncoil into chromatin
Cytokinesis
Mitosis step 4b (Telophase / __ )
- cytoplasm breaks in two

END: 2 identical cells
diploid
cells w/ double set of chromosomes
haploid
cells w/ single set of chromosomes
homologous chromosomes
- 2 chromosomes that are similar in structure
- each contains same genes
Mitosis
- formation of gametes
- produces 4 cells; each is 1/2 original chromosome number