Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/255

Click to flip

255 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Ectoderm
Skin, Nervous Sys (brain & spinal cord), epidermis, lens of eye, inner ear
Endoderm
Lining of Digestive Sys., Liver, Pancreas, Lungs
Mesoderm
Everything else
Crossing over occurs
Prophase 1 - meiosis
Sex-linked traits found on which chromosome
X
When a nucleotide is replaced by an incorrect nucleotide
Point Mutation
Chloroplasts descended from
Free living autotrophs
2 steps in photosynthesis
Light reactions and Calvin cycle (dark reactions)
Product of light reactions
NADPH, ATP, oxygen
Cytosine, Uracil, Thymine
Pyrimidines
Adenine, Guanine
Purines
3 stages in Translation
Initiation, Elongation, Termination
Level of protein structure characterized by alpha/beta sheets
Secondary
Disjunction
Anaphase 1 - meiosis
Unequal division of cytoplasm
occurs during which form of gamete production
Oogenesis
None
Development of egg without fertilization
Parthenogenesis
Binary Fission
Bacteria
Budding occurs in
Yeasts
None
Asexual reproduction
Fission, Budding, Regeneration, Parthenogenesis
H-bonds b/t Thymine and Adenine
2
H-bonds b/t Cytosine and Guanine
3
Sperm storage
Epididymus
Blastospore in humans becomes
Anus
Oxidative phosphorylation takes place
Inner mitochondrial membrane
Translation takes place at the
Ribosome
If a trait skips generations it's
Recessive
Population Genetics
Hardy-Weinberg
Hardy-Weinberg conditions
Radom mating, no natural selection, no migration or emigration, large population, no mutations
Similar anatomy, different function, common evolutionary origin
Homologous structures
Similar function, different evolutionary origin, different patterns of devel.
Analogous structures
Foramen Ovale
Connects RA and LA in fetal heart; purpose: shunt blood away from devel. Lungs
Ductus Arteriosus
Connects pulmonary artery to aorta; purpose: shunt blood away from devel. Lungs
Ductus Venosus
Connects fetal portal circulation to placenta
Both organisms benefit
Mutualism
Hose remains unharmed while organism benefits
Commensalism
Host is hurt but organism benefits
Parasitism
Develops into leaves and upper part of stem
Epicotyl
Stores food for developing embryo
Cotyledons/Seed Leaves
Develops into lower stem and root
Hypocotyl
Feeds embryo
Endosperm
Outer covering; protection/dormancy
Seed Coat
The antigens for a given blood type will be
The same as the given blood type. (i.e. blood type A will have A anitigens)
The antibodies for a given blood type will be
The opposite of the given blood type. (i.e. blood type A will have B antibodies)
Universal donor
Type O
Universal acceptor
Type AB
Annelids exhibit which type of circulatory sys?
Close and simple
Arthropods exhibit which typ of circulatory sys?
Open
Protozoans/Coelenterates exhibit which type of circulatory
Diffusion/Cyclosis
Build Bone
Osteoblasts
Break down bone
Osteclasts
Thick filaments of muscle
Myocin
Thin filaments of muscle
Actin
2 Types of cells in Pancreas
Alpha and Beta
Alpha cells secrete
Glucagon
Beta cells secrete
Insulin
Primitive central nervous sys; brain composed of fused ganglia
Annelids
Nerve net
Coelenterates
Primitive central nervous sys; brain composed of fused ganglia. Also specialized sensory Organs
Arthropods
Lipases, Proteases, Lactase
Hydrolysis (assoc. w/digestion - breaking down large molecules to smaller ones)
Composition of larger molecules from small ones
Synthesis
2 ways prokaryotes differ from Eukaryotes
No nucleus / No membrane-bound organelles
2 types of Eukaryotes that don't have a cell wall
Animals / Protists
Three ways materials move about within a cell
Brownian Movements, Cyclosis, ER
When a cell takes in small amounts of liquid
Pinocytosis
Releasing proteins from the cell
Exocytosis
Cytokinesis
Division of cytoplasm during mitosis
Passage through which air travels during inhalation
Pharynx -> Larynx -> Trachea -> Bronchi -> Alveoli
Ectoderm
Skin, Nervous Sys (brain & spinal cord), epidermis, lens of eye, inner ear
Endoderm
Lining of Digestive Sys., Liver, Pancreas, Lungs
Mesoderm
Everything else
Crossing over occurs
Prophase 1 - meiosis
Sex-linked traits found on which chromosome
X
When a nucleotide is replaced by an incorrect nucleotide
Point Mutation
Chloroplasts descended from
Free living autotrophs
2 steps in photosynthesis
Light reactions and Calvin cycle (dark reactions)
Product of light reactions
NADPH, ATP, oxygen
Cytosine, Uracil, Thymine
Pyrimidines
Adenine, Guanine
Purines
3 stages in Translation
Initiation, Elongation, Termination
Level of protein structure characterized by alpha/beta sheets
Secondary
Disjunction
Anaphase 1 - meiosis
Unequal division of cytoplasm
Oogenesis
Development of egg without fertilization
Parthenogenesis
Binary Fission
Bacteria
Budding
Yeasts
Name the 4 types of asexual reproduction
Fission, Budding, Regeneration, Parthenogenesis
None
H-bonds b/t Thymine and Adenine
2
H-bonds b/t Cytosine and Guanine
3
Sperm storage
Epididymus
Blastospore in humans becomes
Anus
Oxidative phosphorylation takes place
Inner mitochondrial membrane
Translation takes place at the
Ribosome
If a trait skips generations it's
Recessive
Population Genetics
Hardy-Weinberg
Hardy-Weinberg conditions
Radom mating, no natural selection, no migration or emigration, large population, no mutations
Similar anatomy, different function, common evolutionary origin
Homologous structures
Similar function, different evolutionary origin, different patterns of devel.
Analogous structures
Foramen Ovale
Connects RA and LA in fetal heart; purpose: shunt blood away from devel. Lungs
Ductus Arteriosus
Connects pulmonary artery to aorta; purpose: shunt blood away from devel. Lungs
Ductus Venosus
Connects fetal portal circulation to placenta
Both organisms benefit
Mutualism
Hose remains unharmed while organism benefits
Commensalism
Host is hurt but organism benefits
Parasitism
Develops into leaves and upper part of stem
Epicotyl
Stores food for developing embryo
Cotyledons/Seed Leaves
Develops into lower stem and root
Hypocotyl
Feeds embryo
Endosperm
Outer covering; protection/dormancy
Seed Coat
The antigens for a given blood type will be
The same as the given blood type. (i.e. blood type A will have A anitigens)
The antibodies for a given blood type will be
The opposite of the given blood type. (i.e. blood type A will have B antibodies)
Universal donor
Type O
Universal acceptor
Type AB
Annelids exhibit which type of circulatory sys?
Close and simple
Arthropods exhibit which typ of circulatory sys?
Open
Protozoans/Coelenterates exhibit which type of circulatory
Diffusion/Cyclosis
Build Bone
Osteoblasts
Break down bone
Osteclasts
Thick filaments of muscle
Myocin
Thin filaments of muscle
Actin
2 Types of cells in Pancreas
Alpha and Beta
Alpha cells secrete
Glucagon
Beta cells secrete
Insulin
Primitive central nervous sys; brain composed of fused ganglia
Annelids
Nerve net
Coelenterates
Primitive central nervous sys; brain composed of fused ganglia. Also specialized sensory Organs
Arthropods
Lipases, Proteases, Lactase
Hydrolysis (assoc. w/digestion - breaking down large molecules to smaller ones)
Composition of larger molecules from small ones
Synthesis
2 ways prokaryotes differ from Eukaryotes
No nucleus / No membrane-bound organelles
2 types of Eukaryotes that don't have a cell wall
Animals / Protists
Three ways materials move about within a cell
Brownian Movements, Cyclosis, ER
When a cell takes in small amounts of liquid
Pinocytosis
Releasing proteins from the cell
Exocytosis
Cytokinesis
Division of cytoplasm during mitosis
Passage through which air travels during inhalation
Pharynx -> Larynx -> Trachea -> Bronchi -> Alveoli
Virus that infects bacteria
Bacteriophage
Viruses are living organisms. T/F
False (b/c they can't carry out metabolism outside of a host cell)
The only eukaryotic organisms that have a cell wall
Plants and Fungi
Human Circulatory Pathway
Right Atrium -> Right Ventricle -> Pulmonary Artery -> Lungs -> Pulmonary Vein -> Left Atrium -> Left Ventricle -> Aorta -> Body -> Superior / Inferior Vena Cavae
2 Major groups of Prokaryotes
Archaea and Bacteria
Archaea include 3 groups
Methanogens (methane producing prokaryotes), extreme halophiles (prokaryotes that live in high NaCl conc.), extreme thermophiles (prokaryotes living in high temp)
Round / Spherical shaped bacteria
Cocci
Rod-shaped bacteria
Bacilli
Spiral shaped bacteria
Spirilla
The transfer of information from DNA to RNA
Transcription
The transfer of information from an RNA molecule into a polypeptide
Translation
In prokaryotes, transcription and translation take place in the
Cytosol (remember that the reason for this is that prokaryotes lack a nucleus)
Where does transcription and translation take place in eukaryotes
Transcription (in nucleus) ; Translation (outside nucleus)
Polycistronic mRNA is found in which type of cell
Prokaryotes
This organism is capable of reproducing both sexually and asexually
Fungi
Involves the uptake of genetic material from the environment
Transformation
Which typ of organism contains reverse transcriptase (transcribing DNA from RNA)
Retroviruses
Which type of organism contains RNA as its genetic material
Retroviruses
Non-host organism benefits; host itself neither helped nor harmed
Commensalism
Ethanol or Lactic Acid are products of which process
Fermentation
1 molecule of glucose requires how many turns of the citric acid cycle (Krebs)
2 cycles per molecule of glucose
1 turn of the citric acid cycle makes how much ATP, NADH, and FADH2
1 ATP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2
Monozygotic or Dizygotic twins are identical
Monozygotic
Ionized calcium released by sarcoplasmic reticulum promotes
Muscle contraction
Ionized calcium absorbed by sarcoplasmic reticulum - what happens
Muscle relaxes
Wave-like contractions that move food through digestive tract referred to as
Peristalsis
Duodenum, Jejunum, ileum
Small intestine
Cecum, Colon, Rectum
Large intestine
Organ whos primary function is to absorb water and salts
Large intestine
Protein digestion begins where
Stomach
Lipid digestion begins where
Small intestine
Nervous sys that promotes digestion
Parasympathetic NS
Nervous sys that inhibits digestion
Sympathetic NS
Host cell bursts releasing phages
Lytic Cycle
Bacteria divides via binary fission passing viral DNA onto daughter cells
Lysogenic Cycle
Peptidoglycan (cell wall)
Prokayotes
Chitin (cell wall)
Fungi
Transfer of bacterial DNA from cell to cell using a bacteriophage
Transduction
Taking in genetic material from environment
Transformation
Formation of blood cells occurs where
Bone Marrow
None
Formation of bone without pre-existing cartilage template
Intramembranous Ossification
Cartilage template grows and is later replaced by bone
Endochondral Ossification
Substance secreted by damaged cells that cause blood vessel dilation
Histamine
Signaling molecule that is involved in the coordination of the immune response
Lymphokine
Hormone that stimulates the maturation of pre-T cells
Thymosin
Site of maturation of T-cells
Thymus
Which type of cell regulate the activity of B and T cells
Supressor T cells
Which type of cell activates B and T cells
Helpter T cells
B cells do what
Produce antibodies
Extremely short growing seasons, long, cold, dark winters, low precipitation
Tundra
Cold, long winters, short summers
Taiga
Non-host organism benefits; host itself neither helped nor harmed
Commensalism
Ethanol or Lactic Acid are products of which process
Fermentation
1 molecule of glucose requires how many turns of the citric acid cycle (Krebs)
2 cycles per molecule of glucose
1 turn of the citric acid cycle makes how much ATP, NADH, and FADH2
1 ATP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2
Monozygotic or Dizygotic twins are identical
Monozygotic
Ionized calcium released by sarcoplasmic reticulum promotes
Muscle contraction
Ionized calcium absorbed by sarcoplasmic reticulum - what happens
Muscle relaxes
Wave-like contractions that move food through digestive tract referred to as
Peristalsis
Duodenum, Jejunum, ileum
Small intestine
Cecum, Colon, Rectum
Large intestine
Organ whos primary function is to absorb water and salts
Large intestine
Protein digestion begins where
Stomach
Lipid digestion begins where
Small intestine
Nervous sys that promotes digestion
Parasympathetic NS
Nervous sys that inhibits digestion
Sympathetic NS
Host cell bursts releasing phages
Lytic Cycle
Bacteria divides via binary fission passing viral DNA onto daughter cells
Lysogenic Cycle
Peptidoglycan (cell wall)
Prokayotes
A cell wall composed of chitin is found in which type of cell
Fungi
None
Transfer of bacterial DNA from cell to cell using a bacteriophage
Transduction
Taking in genetic material from environment
Transformation
Formation of blood cells occurs where
Bone Marrow
None
Formation of bone without pre-existing cartilage template
Intramembranous Ossification
Cartilage template grows and is later replaced by bone
Endochondral Ossification
Substance secreted by damaged cells that cause blood vessel dilation
Histamine
Signaling molecule that is involved in the coordination of the immune response
Lymphokine
Hormone that stimulates the maturation of pre-T cells
Thymosin
Site of maturation of T-cells
Thymus
Which type of cell regulate the activity of B and T cells
Supressor T cells
Which type of cell activates B and T cells
Helper T cells
None
B cells do what
Produce antibodies
Extremely short growing seasons, long, cold, dark winters, low precipitation
Tundra
Cold, long winters, short summers
Taiga
Organism that can live in the presence/absence of oxygen
Facultative Aerobes
Organism that needs to live in the absence oxygen
Obligate Anaerobes
Organisms or structures that serve no useful function
Vestigial Structures
Which Theory of Evolution involves concepts of Survial of Fittest, Adaptations and Natural Selec.
Darwin's Theory of Evolution
Which type of Evolution involves the process of two or more related species becoming more and more dissimilar
Divergent Evolution
Organisms that feed on dead and decaying material
Saprophytes (Fungi) - ex. Bread mold
During which type of contraction is the length of the muscle constant
Isometric
During which type of contraction is the length of the muscle shortened
Isotonic
A condition of sustained muscle contraction due to an overlap of twitch impulses
Tetanus
The state of partial muscle contraction that occurs in the resting muscle
Tonus
Which hormone is responsible for the development of the primary follice
FSH
Which hormone causes the graafian follicle to undergo ovulation
LH
As a follicle develops, which hormone does it produce
Estrogen
What causes an elevation in the level of serum glucose
Glucagon
What causes a decrease in the level of serum glucose
Insulin
Which phylum includes sea urchins and starfish
Echinodermata
Echinoderms reproduce sexually or asexually
Sexually
Echinoderms are heterotrophs or autotrophs
Heterotrophs
Echinoderms are vertebrates or invertebrates
Invertebrates
Which hormone stimulates gamete production in both sexes
FSH
The process in which random mutations are selected for survival by the environment
Natural Selection
Theory that organs of the body use to cope w/environment become larger/stronger while organs not used deteriorate
Principle of use and disuse - Lamarckian's Theory of Evolution
Inheritance of acquired characteristics (long neck giraff) is associated with which theory of evolution
Lamarckian's Theory of Evolution
Genetic Drift is associated with which theory of evolution
Darwin's Theory of Evolution
A form of genetic drift in which a small subset of a population becomes genetically isolated from orig. population
Founder Effect - Darwin's Theory of Evolution
Analogous similarities (indep. Devel. of similar struct in diff. species due to similar ecological roles and selection pressures
Convergent Evolution
The process by which mutations are "tried out" in the environ and if they're accepted, they'll be passed onto the next generation
Natural Selection
Which hormone stimulates follicle growth
FSH
Hormone that shuts off FSH production
Estrogen from ovaries
None
Which hormone prepares uterus of implantation of zygote
Progesterone
None
Hormones soley responsible for secondary sex characteristics
Estrogen / Testosterone
Hormone produced by anterior pituitary
FSH / LH
Area of brain responsible for fine motor coordination, balance, and equilibrium
Cerebellum
Area of brain that controls breathing rates
Medulla Oblongata
Area of brain that regulates hunger, thirst, body temp, sex drive, and emotion
Hypothalmus
Bones are connected to eachother by connective tissue known as
Ligaments
The type of tissue that connects muscle to bone
Tendons