Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/111

Click to flip

111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Taxonomy
Branch of biology that names and groups organisms by their characteristics and evolutionary history.
Who was the first to classify organisms?
Aristotle
Why are common names not good to use when classifying organisms? and give an example.
Common names vary in different locations and common names may not dexcribe species accurately. Ex. Jellyfish is not a fish.
Explain Linnaeus's 2-word naming system.
First part of name is Genus the second part is the species identifyer (descriptive word)
What is Linnaeus's naming system called?q
Binomial Nomenclature
What do modern taxonomist use to classify organisms?q
Phylogency
What is phylogency?
Evolutionary history of organism
Cell compnent that carries on a specific job for the cell.
Organelles
Packages materials such as proteins made by the cell
Golgi apparatus
make up membrane of cell
Phospholipids
control center of cell where DNA is found
nucleus
where proteins are made in all cells
ribosomes
states all living things are made of cells.
cell theory
cells with a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
eukaryote
structure around outsice of the sell membrane in plants for support and protection
cell wall
made of microfilaments and microtubules in the sytoplasm for support
cytoskeleton
smallest part of an organism that can carry on all life processes
cell
powerhouses of a cell where ATP (energy) is generated
mitochondria
store enzymes and waste products in cell
vacuole
digests material within the cell
lysosome
short hairlike structures around the outside of cell for movement
cilia
system of canals inside a cell
endoplasmic reticulum
where photosynthesis occurs
chloroplast
first to view cork cells with a simple microscope
Robert Hooke
cells lacking a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
prokaryote
What transport system requires the use of energy by the cell to transport molecules against the concentration gratient? (low to high)?
active transport
what molecule is the waste product of photosynthesis?
Oxygen
Order of the levels of organization in multicellular organism is
cells, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
light reactions of photosynthesis (first set of reactions) occurs in the ____.
thylakoid membrane
corn and sugar cane are examples of plants that grow best in warm, moist climates due to their ability to keep their stomata closed during day w/o disrupting calvin cycle. what type of plants are these?
C4
Formula for photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O (arrow to right) C6H12O6 + 6CO2
type of transport that doesnt require energy but uses proteins to move substances from high to low concentrations is called ____
facilitated diffusion
which of the following is an example of passive transport?
sodium-potassium pump
pinocytosis
exocytosis
facilitated diffusion
facilitated diffusion
small pores found on underside of leaves where water loss can occur and the exchange of gasses is called___
stomata
which of the following substance cannot easily pass throuth the cell membrane?
oxygen
water
nitrogen
carbon dioxide
nitrogen
autotrophs use the gas, _____, to produce the gas, _____
carbon dioxide, oxygen
______plants such as cacti, grow best in hot dry climates. They close their stomata during day and open at night to conserve______.
CAM, water
type of tissue with the function to unite parts is called
connective
unicellular paramecium use contractile vacuoles to get rid of excess water similar to a sump pump used in flooded basements. what type of transport is this?
active transport
the Calvin cycle takes place in the _______ of the chloroplast
stroma
cell membrane is "selectively permeable" what does that mean?
It only lets certain things in and out of the cell
at equilibrium, what happens to the random movement of molecules? what happens to the net movement of molecules in any particular direction
the random movement continues...net movement is zero
wat is the difference between pinocytosis and phagocytosis. what do they have in common?
pinocytosis transports small things like fluids, phagocytosis transports larger things like molecules and solids into cell. alike...both are endocytosis
why plants appear green to us? why do leaves turn colors in the fall?
green wavelength is reflected to our eyes. chlorophyll production is greatly reduced and leaves have other pigments that start to show. (carotenoids)
wat is difference in chromosomes and chromatin?
chromosomes_coiled and are during division
Chromatin - uncoiled not shown during division
hypotonic
hypertonic
isotonic
hypo, big bloated about to burst, arrows going into it
hyper. shrivled like rasin arrows going out of it.
iso. equal going in and out so its a regular cell
how do phagocytes protect cells and body
they surround bacteria and take it to lysosomes to digest and get rid of
parts of chloroplast
thylakoid-each disk like thing
granum-stack of disks (thylakoids)
Stroma-area around thy and granum
anaerobic and aerobic respiration bigin with ______
glycolysis
maximum # of ATP formed during cellular respiration is ___
38
correct order of processis in cellular respiration is
glycolysis, krebs cycle, ETC
end product of glycolysis is 2 molecules of ____
pyruvate
by accepting electrons ,the oxygen used turns into
water
net number of ATP molecules made directly by glycolysis is ___
2
before krebs cyclecan proceed, pyruvate must be converted into_____
acetyl CoA
what molecule determines whether the pyruvate will undergo fermentation of be converted for entry into the krebs cycle?
oxygen
ETC takes place in the ____
cristae
yeast is used to form bread during ________
alcoholic fermentation
wat is not part of mitosis?
prophase
telophase
metaphase
interphase
interphase
division of cytoplasm of eukaryotic cell is called
mitosis
cytokinesis
binary fission
karyokinesis
cytokinesis
human egg/sperm cell is ____ but when they unite fertilized egg is _____
haploid, diploid
uncoiled genetic material in nucleus during nondivisional phases of cell cycle is _______
chromatid
chromosome
chromatin
centrioles
chromatin
sex cells are called
gametes
the diploid (2n) number of chromosomes for humans is ____
46
process of making duplicate copuy of DNA molecule is called _________
Replication
wat is the order of phases of mitosis?
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
cell cycles two main stages are called______
mitosis and interphase
karyokinesis is another term for what?
mitosis
when mitosis is done what must occur before cell division is complete?
cytokinesis
DNA replication occurs during ______
interphase
what type of cells result after meiosis
4 genetically different cells
cell w/ 24 chromosomes begins mitosis. at end of process there are ______
2 daughter cells each with 24 chromosomes
wat part of cell es actually dividing during mitosis?
nucleus
DNA is is tightly coiled around what kind of proteins?
histone
constricted area that holds chromatids together is called
centromere
tightly coiled DNA thatc can be seen when a cells is dividing is called a _____
chromosome
when a sperm fertilizes an egg, the new cell forms a ______
zygote
______reduces the chromosome # by half while ______ resotes it.
meiosis, fertilization
Number of divisions
# of daughter cells
genetically identical
chromosome #
where occurs
when occurs
role
Mitosis Meiosis
1 2
2 4
yes no
same as parent 1/2 of parent
body cells gametes sex cells
thru life sexual maturity
growth repair reproduction
genes are alike for a trait
homozygous
genes are diff for a trait
heterozygous
physical/visible characteristics
phenotype
weaker trait
recessive
factors of heredity, found in pairs, section of DNA
genes
study of heredity
genetics
sudden change in gene or chromosome
mutation
carries code for protein to ribosome
RNA
genes are neither dominant or recessive
incomplete dominance
stronger trait
dominant
spital-shaped structure
DNA
rod-shaped structure
chromosomes
different forms of a gene
alleles
actual gene pair
genotype
make complimentary base pairs
T C C A T G C G A T
A G G T A C G C T A
SET OF 3 BASES THAT DETERMINE SPECIFIC AMINO ACID FOUND ON mRNA IS ______
codon
class of 20 molecules that combine to make proteins is called
Amino acids
in base pair, adenine always goes with______
thymine
3 parts of nucleotide ______,______, and ______
sugar, phosphate, nitrogen base
sequence of 3 DNA nucleotides is ______
triplet
4 nitrogen bases
adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine
process of tRNA assembling amino acids into proteins at the ribosome according to the instructions carried by mRNA is called ______
translation
sequence of 3 tRNA bases on tRNA is called ______
anticodon
______is process of copying DNA code onto a strand of mRNA
Transcription
sugar
strand
location
nitrogen base
DNA RNA
deoxyribose ribose
2 1
nucleus only cytop and nucl
thymine uracil
the rails of DNA made of ______and______
phosphate and sugar
______is father of genetics and studied ______
Gregor mendel, genetics
______ identified DNA as spiral shaped structure called double helix
watson and crick
______took x-ray pics of DNA to determine actual shape
Franklin
______is a scientist who studies genetic inheritance
genetisist
______is chart to show possible gene combos in a cross between 2 organisms
punnett square
female genotype is _____and male genotype is ______
XX, XY