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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
proximate factors
question environmental stimuli as well as the genetic, physiological, and anatomical mechanisms underlying a behavioral act; HOW question; e.x. how does day length influence breeding behavior?
ultimate factors
address the evolutionary significance of a behavior; WHY questions; e.x. why did natural selection favori this behavior?
the scientific study of how animals behave
1) Mechanistic basis of behavior? 2) how does developmemnt, from zygote to mature indv, influence behavior? 3) What is evolutionary history of behav? 4) How does behavior conribute to survival and repro?
fixed action patterns
a sexuence of unlearned behavioral acts that is essentially unchangeable and, once initiated, is uaually carried to completion; e.x. red bellied fish
type of behavior that includes both learning and innate components and is generally irreversible; has a sensitive peroid
a simple change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimulus; e.x. sow bugs are more active in dry areas and less active in humid areas; more likely to hang out in moist area
automatic, oriented movement toward or away from some stimulus; e.x. fish swim against current
genetically program
animals communicate through odors emit chemical substances
auditory communication
songs are partially learned in most bird species. in insects, mating songs are under direct genetic control
visual communication
communication via plummage and visual displays such as "dances"
genetic influences on mating and parental behavior
p. 1112-1113 i.e. monogamous male prairie voles care for their young and becomes extremely aggressive to strangers. Behaviors may be mediated by AVP (arginine-vasopressin) released during mating.
social environment in behavior
p. 1114 cross-fostering (young of one species placed in the nest of another)resulted in behaviors learned from foster parents (not retrieving young from nest)that was passed on to the next generation
p. 1114-1118 the modification of behavior based on specific experiences. includes habituation, spatial learning, cognitive maps, associative learning, cognition and problem solving, and genetic and environmental interaction in learning
cognitive maps
p. 1116 an internal representation, or code, of the spatial relationships between objects in an animal's surroundings
modification of behavior based on specific experiences
cognitive maps
an internal representation, or code, of the spatial relationships between objects in an animal's surroundings; e.x. birds hiding food memorize
classical conditioning
an arbitrary stimulus is associated with a reward or punishment; e.x. fruit flys' scent w/ electric shock
operant conditioning
trial-and-error learning; associates one of its own behaviors with a reward or punishment and then tends to repeat or avoid that behavior
the ability of an animal's nervous system to perceive, sotr, process, and use information gathered by sensory receptros
variation in prey selection
e.x. garter snakes recognized slugs via chemoreception and costal pops started eating them because they were abundant and so the costal snakes that ate slugs became stronger species, but still soemthing they had to adapt to b/c inland snakes hadn't adapted to it
variation in agressive behavior
found that the difference in aggressiveness between arid-habitat and raparian A. aperta spiders is genetaically based and is the product of natural selection for differences in foraging and territorial behavior - a genetically determined rather than learned response
behavior associated with recognizing, searching for, capturing, and consuming food
optimal foraging theory
views foraging behavior as a compromise between the benefits of nutrition and the costs of obtaining food, such as the energy expenditure or rosk of being eaten while foraging
cost-benefit analysis
e.x. bird dropping shells use optimal height already derived to not waste energy
no strong pair-bonds or lasting relationships
one male mating with one female
mating systems and paternal care
monogomous = more paternal care b/c they're sure it's their babies; high infant care = monogmous; less care = polygymno; more certain paternity = more male care
sexual selection and mate choice
intersexual selection = female picks male based on health; intrasexual selection = males compete for females
inclusive fitness
the total effect an individual has on proliferating its genes by producing its own offspring and by providing aid that enables other close relatives, who share may of those genes, to produce offspring
kin selection
the natural selection that favors this kind of alturistic behavior by enhancing reproductive success of relatives
social learning
learning through ovserving others
population size
number of individuals within a boundary
number of individuals per unit area or volume
pattern of spacing among individuals withing the boundaries of the population
age structure
the relative number of individuals of each age in a population
a group of individuals of the same age
birth rate
number of births per 1,000 people
death rate
proporting of individuals dying in the specific time interval
survivorship curve I
flat at start, low death rate; humans other large mammals; high offspring curve, low birth rate
survivorship curve II
constant death rate over life span; ground squirrels
survivorship curve III
drops sharply at the start, very high death rates for the young; low parental care
exponential population growth
population increase under ideal conditions; abumdant food and free to reproduce
logistic model
s-shaped curve; new individuals are added to the population most rapidly at intermediate pop sizes; population growth rate slows dramatically as N approaches K
selection for life history traits that maximize reproductive success in uncrowded environments (low densities); density-independent selection; maximize the rate of increase; pop densities flucturate well below carrying ccapacity or individuals are likely to face little competition
sensitive to population density; density-dependent selection; maximize populatin size and operates in pops living at a density near the K
carrying capacity
maximum population size that a particular environment can support; re predators, energy, water, shelters, soil nutrients
density independent
birth rate or death rate that does not change with population density
density dependent
a death rate that rises as population density; competition for resources, territoriality, health, prediation, toxic waste, intrinsic factors (aggressioin increases with high density)
physical area a species inhabits
sum total of a species' use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment
competitive exclusion principle
two species conpeting for the same limiting resources cannot coexist in the same place; one species will use the resources more efficiently and thus reproduce more rapidly than the other; even slight reproductive advantage will eventually lead to local elimination of the inferior competitor
resource partitioning
the differentiation of niches that enables similar species to coexist in a community; natural selection
character displacement
tendency for characteristics to be more divergent in geographically over-lapping populations of two species than in geographically separate populations of the same two species
cryptic coloradion; makes prey difficult to spot
aposematic coloration
animals with effective chemical devenses often exhibit bright warning coloration
batesian mimicry
palatable or harmless species mimics an unpalatable or harmful model; ex larva looks like snake head
mullerian mimicry
two or more unpalpable species resemble each other; ex cuckoo bee and yellow jacket
trophic levels
primary producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, etc.
aggressive mimicry
secure prey items
a disturbed area (volcano, glacier) may be colonized by a variety of species, which are gradually replaced by other species, which are in turn replaced by still other species
an event, such as a storm, fire, flood, drought, overgrazing, or human activty, that changes a community, removes organisms from it, and laters resource avaliability
keystone species
species that exert strong congrol on community structure by ecological roles; not reflected in its abundance
area effects
all other factors being equal, the larger geographic area of a community, the greater the number of species
distance effect
close island larger equilibrium numbers than far islands because immigration rates to near islands are higher and extinction rates lower
Leydig Cells
Scattered between semiferous tubules---produce testosterone and other androgens
Seminiferous Tubules
where sperm form
sperm go from seminiferous tubules into the tubules of the epididymus. this is where sperm develop motility and ability to fertilize eggs
develop into egg cells. a follicle can contain one mature egg cell surrounded by other follicle cells, which are for nourishment for the developing egg. also follicles release estrogen
egg cell isexpelled from follicle
Corpus Luteum
made of the remaing follicular tissue. secretes estrogen and progesterone which helps maintin the uterine lining during pregnancy **if no pregnancy, then the corpus Luteum disintigrates
also called the fillopian tube, has funnel like opening---takes mature eggs to uterus by cilica and drawing fluid in to take it to the uterus
Seminal Vesicles
GLAND- produce about 60% of semen volume. provides fructose for sperm nutrition
Prostate Gland
Largest GLAND- secretes enzymes. **health issues-prostate cancer**
Bulbourethral gland
GLAND- neutralizes any acidic urine in the urethra before ejaculation for health of sperm
allows sperm to develop in an external environment-- 2 degree F less than in abdominal
contain many highly coiled seminiferous tubules surrounded by several layers of connective tissue
Oogenesis vs. spermatogenesis
Oogenesis- produces one egg per round per meiosis
Spermatogensis- produces four sperm per round of meiosis
Estrous vs. menstral
Estrous- endometrium (lining of uterus) is sreabsorbed- no bleeding; more pronounced behavioral changes during estrous cycle; stronger effects of season and climate; generally only have sex around period of ovulation
Menstral- 20-40 day cycles; endometrium (lining of uterus) is shed and expelled if no pregnancy
LH vs. FHS
LH- triggers ovulation; triggers remaing follicles to become corpus luteum
FSH- stimulates follicle growth- causes only the most developed follicle to go on with ovulation
Primary VS. secondary sex characteristics
primary- reproductive system- penis vagina- sperm production
Secondary- facial/pubic hair, muscle growth, deepening of voice
organ that contains both embryonic and maternal blood vessels. it provides nutrients, respitory gases, and disposes of metabolic wastes for the embryo/fetus
worst time to expose fetus/embryo to drugs, toxins, alcohol
first trimester- first 12 weeks
after 2 months- how big and developed is a fetus
1-5 cm long. very developed- well differentiated- now called a fetus
What benefits does a baby recieve from milk from its actual mother
proteins, enzymes, antibodies, nutrition, --makes child more resistant to disease. gives the baby hormones, white blood cells, vitamins and minerals that are easy for the baby to absorb. contains lysozome for protein breakdown
Ecology and its subfields
study of interactions between organisms and their environment
1) ORGANISMAL- concerns w/ how an organisms structure and behavior help it meet the challenges posed by an environemtn
2)POPULATION- concentrates mainly on factors that affect how many individuals of particular species are in an area
3)COMMUNITY- deals with the whole array of interacting species in a community
4)ECOSYSTEM- focus on energy flow and chemical cycling among the various biotic and abiotic factors
5)LANDSCAPE- deals with the arrays of ecosystems(an example- patches of coral reef surrounded by turtle grass)
6)BIOSPHERE- the global ecosystem- the sum all of the plant's ecosystems
Most impactful abiotic factors
precipitation and temperature