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51 Cards in this Set

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The creation of new individuals from existing ones.
An ordered sequence of events (including interphase and the mitotic phase) that extends from the time a eukaryotic cell is first formed from a dividing parent cell until its own division into two cells.
Cell Cycle
The reproduction of cells.
Cell Division
The division of a single nucleus into two genetically identical daughter nuclei.

Mitosis and cytokinesis make up the mitotic(M)phase of a cell cycle.
The period in the eukaryotic cell cycle when the cell is not actually dividing.
Interphase (growth phase)
The combination of DNA and proteins that constitutes chromosomes; often used to refer to the diffuse, very extended form taken by the chromosomes when a eukaryotic cell is not dividing.
A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell and most visible during mitosis and meiosis; also, the main gene-carrying structure of a prokaryotic cell.

Chromosomes consist of chromatin.
The region of a chromosome where two sister chromatids are joined and where spindle microtubules attach during mitosis and meiosis.

The centromere divides at the onset of anaphase during mitosis and anaphase II during meiosis.
A structure in an animal cell composed of microtubule triplets arranged in a 9+0 pattern.

An animal cell usually has a pair of centrioles within each of its centrosomes.
Material in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell that gives rise to microtubules; important in mitosis and meiosis; also called microtubule-organizing center.

An animal cell usually has a pair of centrioles within each of its centrosomes.
The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells.

Cytokinesis usually occurs during telophase of mitosis, and mitosis and cytokinesis make up the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle.
A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis.
Cell plate
(1)Cytokinesis in animal cells and in some protists, characterized by pinching in of the plasma membrane. (2)In animal development, the succession of rapid cell divisions without cell growth that converts the animal zygote into a ball of cells.
The first sign of cytokinesis during cell division in an animal cell; a shallow grove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate.
Cleavage Furrow
The creation of offspring by a single paretn, without the participation of sperm and egg.
Asexual Reproduction
A means of asexual reproduction whereby a new individual developed from an outgrowth of a parent splits off and lives independently.
The regrowth of body parts from piecesof an organism.
The creation of offspring by the fusion of two haploid sex cells (gametes), forming a diploid zygote.
Sexual Reproduction
A sex cell; a haploid egg or sperm.

The union of two gametes of opposite sex (fertilization) produces a zygote.
In a sexually reproducing organism, the division of a single diploid nucleus into four haploid daughter nuclei.

Meiosis and cytokinesis produce haploid gametes from diploid cells in the reproductive organs fo the parents.
In the life cycle of an organism that reproduces sexually, a cell containing a single set of chromosomes; an "n" cell.
Haploid Cell
The entire sequence of stages in the life of an organism, from the adults of one generation to the adults of the next.
Life Cycle
The union of the nucleus of a sperm cell with the nucleus of an egg cell; producing a zygote.
The fertilized egg, which is diploid, that results fromt he union of a sperm cell nucleus and an egg cell nucleus.
A display of micrographs of the metaphase chromosomes of a cell, arranged by size and centromere position.
A chromosome not directly involved in determining the sex of an organism; in mammals, for example, any chromosome other than X or Y.
A chromosome that determines whether an individual is male or female.
Sex Chromosome
In an organism that reproduces sexually, a cell containing two homologous sets fo chromosomes, one set ingerited from each parent; a "2n" cell.
Diploid Cell
The two chromosomes that make up a matched pair in a diploid cell.
Homologous Chromosomes

Homologous chromosomes are the same length, centromere posistion, and staining pattern and pssess genes for the same characteristics at corresponding loci.. One homologous chromosome is inherited from the organism's father, and the other from the mother.
The production, by crossing over and/or independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis, of offspring with allele combinations different from thos in the parents. The term may also be used more specifically to mean the production by crossing over of eukaryotic or prokaryotic chromosomes with gene combinations different from those in the original chromosomes.
Genetic Recombination
The microscopically visile site where crossing over has occured between chromatids of homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis.
Chiasma (plural
A means of asexual reproduction in which a parent organism, often a single cell, divides into two individuals of about equal size.
Binary Fission
All the genes in a population at any one time.
Gene Pool
A complete (haploid) set of an organism's genes; an organism's genetic material
The set of rules giving the correspondence between nucleotide triplets (codons) in mRNA and amino acids in protein.
Genetic Code
An international collaborative effort to map and sequence the DNA of the entire human genome.
Human Genome Project (HGP)
An accitdent of meiosis or mitosis in which a pair of homologous chromosomes or a pair of sister chromatids fail to separate at anaphase.
Repetition of part of a chromosome resulting from fusion with a fragment from a homologous chromosome; can result from an error in meiosis or from mutagenesis.
The loss of one or more nucleotides from a gene by mutation; the loss of a fragment of a chromosome.
A change in a chromosome resulting from reattachment of a chromosome gragment to the original chromsome, but in a reverse direction. Mutafens and error during meiosis can cause this.
(1)During protein synthesis, the movement of a tRNA molecule carrying a growing polypeptide chain from the A site to the P site on a ribosome. (The mRNA travels with it.)
(2)A change in a chromosome resulting from a chromosomal fragment attachign to a nonhomologous chromosome- can occur as a result of an error in meiosis or from mutagenesis.
A change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA; the ultimate source of genetic diversity.
A cell that is not subject to normal cell cycle control mechanisms and that will therefore divide continuously. Feeds off of the body and can only live as long as the body lives.
Cancer Cell
Cancer that originates in the coverings of the body, such as skin or the lining of the intestinal tract.
Cancer of the supportive tissues, such as bone, cartilage, and muscle.
A type of cancer of the blood-forming tissues, characterized by an excessive production of white blood cells and an abnormally high number of them in the blood- cancer of the bone marrow cells that produce leukocytes.
Cancer of the tissues that form white blood cells.
The spread of cancer cells beyond their original site.
An abnormal tissue mass that can spread into neighboring tissues and to other parts of the body; a cancerous tumor.
Malignant Tumor
An abnormal mass of cells that remains at its original site in the body.
Benign Tumor
The timely death (and disposal of the remains) of certain cells, triggered by certain genes: an essential process in normal development: also called apoptosis.
Programmed Cell Death