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14 Cards in this Set

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what are the two forms of flight?
powered(gain altitude)and unpowered(lose altitude)
what are the two types of unpowered flight?
gliding:go farther than 45 degress away
parachuting:closer than 45 degrees away
how many times did unpowered flight evolve?and in which lineages?
-6
-3 in mammals, 3 in birds
are lepidosaurs flyers? are they powered or unpowerd?
-yes
-unpowered(gliders)
lizards,tipozoan(gekos),snakes
what tetrapod amphibians have unpowered flight?
-ray fin fish=gliding
-frog=parachuting
what is the only thing needed to perfrom unpowered flight?
a change in shape/morphology
what is required for powered flight?what are the 3 lineages of the amniots that use powered flight? where is powered flight NEVER found?
-alotof energy
-change in morphology
-birds, bats, terasaurs
-in ecothermal vertebrate
what are the two hypohtesis that made birds move into flight? in each case what kind of feathers did the birds have?
1.trees down hypothesis(jumped from tree to tree then down to the ground)-down feathers
2.ground up(started on the ground and developed wings then left the ground)-true feahters
how do the each monkey walk?
-orangutan=fist
-gorilla=knuckle onl all 4s
what is the closes monkey to us? how close are they to humans?
-chimps
-1-2%difference in the DNA
what are humans?
homospapiens
what are the three types of human lineages that have existed?
-australopithlious(Africa),bipedal can walk and climb
-paranthrous(Africa)very heavy jaws and bran
-homo(europe,asia,africa)
what are the two species of homos?
1.homo neandertalensis(1500cc brains)
2.homosapiens(1350cc brains)
what are the 2 hypothesis of homos?
1. out of africa- africa homos out competed all the other ones in europe
2.assimilation- homosapiens in africa interbreed with sapiens in europe