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24 Cards in this Set

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Identical vs. Fraternal
Identical- same egg, identical zygotes (monozygotic) 4 in 1,000

Fraternal- two eggs, (dizygotic) 12 in 1,000
Cystic Fibrosis
genetic disorder-> alveolar cell surfaces become covered with mucus - breathing problems & pneumonia
Tay-Sachs Disease
Metabolic disorder. Lack of an enzyme that is required to metabolize a fatty compound in the brain. Lack-fatty compound accumulates & destroys the brain cells
Individual variation or uniqueness depends on...
number of different gametes that each organism can produce. Humans- 6.4 million. Genetic combinations - 70 trillion
Mitosis vs. Meiosis
Mitosis-> replication of autosomal cells, 46 chromosomes are replicated
Meiosis-> replication of reproductive organs, where gametes are produced
Chromosomal replication
2 sets of chromosomes come together during fertilization
Haploid-Diploid Cycle
alteration between one and two sets of genetic material during the reproductive cycle
Mutations
Changing the DNA squences alter the coding for the proteins. Can only be passed on when it occurs in the gametes or sex cells
Gregor Mendel
revealed the pattern of genetic inheritance in garden peas in 1865 (Mendel's Law)
Chromosome
Consists of genetic material (DNA). A gene is a specific sequence of DNA that controls the expression of a trait
Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction
Asexual-> reproduction without the formation of gametes, offspring identical to parents
Sexual-> fusion of 2 haploid cells (gametes)
Phenotype
observable traits or characteristics
Genotype
genetic identity that does not show outward
Homozygote vs. Heterozygote
Homozygote- same alleles, two identical copies of the gene

Heterozygote- different alleles, carries 2 different versions of that gene
Transcription vs. Translation
Transcription-mRNA molecule is synthesized from a DNA sequence

Translation- tRNA match to mRNA at the ribosome. The amino acids attached to the tRNA form a protein growing chain
Central Dogma
A gene contains the information needed to synthesize a protain molecule which is the expression of that gene. Protein synthesis occurs thru transcription and translation.
Genetic Code
Code used to convert the DNA base sequence into an amino acid sequence
Point/Missense Mutation
single base change (substitution)
Nonsense mutation
change to a stop codon
Frameshift Mutation
addition or deletion
causes of mutations
UV light, replication errors, Ionizing radiation, chemicals
Genetic engineering
manipulation of DNA for human purposes. Can produce large quantities of protein or put a desirable genetic trait into a certain species
How many bases can be found in the genetic code?
3 bases (64 codes)
How does influenza get into host cell?
Has 2 proteins