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42 Cards in this Set

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Things that can be seen under light microscope
Frog egg, plant/animal cells, nucleus, mitochondrion
catabolism
Breaking down of more complex substances into simpler ones, and releases energy
Anabolism
consume energy to build up complicated molecules
Hydrolysis
reverse of dehydration reaction, break down polymers
Properties of water
Hydrogen bonding (makes water cohesive), polar, high specific heat, ice floats, high heat of vaporization, solvent of life
Functional groups
Hydroxyl, carboxyl, amino, phosphate, carbonyl, methyl, sulfhudryl
Describe the functional group HYDROXYL
Alcohols (ethanol, glycerol), polar hydrophilic (dissolves in H2O)
Describe the functional group CARBOXYL
Carboxylic acids (acetic acid, amino acids), Polar, hydrophilic, weak acid (Has H that wants to seperate)
Describe the functional group AMINO
Amines (amino acid), Polar, hydrophilic (have neg 1 charge so wants to take in H), weak base
Describe the functional group PHOSPHATE
Organic phosphates (DNA, ATP, phospholipids), polar hydrophilic acid (some what acid)
Describe the functional group CARBONYL (Ketones)
"In the middle," (acetone), polar, hydrophilic
Describe the functional group CARBONYL (aldehydes)
"At the end," formaldehyde, polar, hydrophilic
Describe the functional group METHYL
Surrounded by H, fatty acids, oils, nonpolar, hydrophobic
Describe the functional group SULFHYDRYL
Attached to carbon chain, thiols, polar.
Proteins
polymer made from monomers called amino acid. FUNCTION: transport, movement, receptors, defense, structure
Carbohydrates
includes sugers and polymers (long molecule consisting of many identical or similar building blocks linked by covalent bonds)
Nucleic acid
Polymers of monomers called nucleotides (for heredity, code for amino acid sequence)
Lipids
Large biological molecule does not include polymers, no affinity for H2O, includes waxes, fats, oils, steroids.
Steroids
lipids characteristic by carbon skeleton of 4 fused rings & vary in functional groups attached to rings
Coenzymes
A cofactor that is organic (most vitamins) all make catalysis happen
List the organelles that have membranes
E.R., golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, mitochondrion
Parts of the prokaryotic cell
No organized nucleus or organelles, single celled, DNA coiled together (called nucleoid
Nucleus
contains genes that control the eukaryotic cell (some are in mito & chloroplasts)
Lipid bilayer
surrounds nucleus with pores that regulate entry and exit of substances
Chromatin
jumble of uncoiled DNA located in nucleus
Nucleolus
where ribosomes are madeand sent out of nucelus to cytoplasm
Ribosomes
sites where cell makes proteins (builds in cytosol)
Endoplasmic Reticulum
membranous organelle made of folds of membrane called sisternae (two types: smooth- lacks ribosomes, rough- contains ribosomes)
Golgi apparatus
finishes, sorts and ships products from rough ER. (DNA shipped off in body that needs it)
Lysosomes
made by ER, vesicles that digest unwanted molecules, recycle, breakdown
Vacuoles
membrane bound sacs for storage
Mitochondrion
Sites for cellular respiration where ATP made from breaking down sugars and fats with O2
Chloroplasts
found only in plants, sites of photosynthesis, convert solar energy to chemical
Facilitated diffusion
polar molecules & ions can cross membrane with help of transport proteins
Active transport
energy being used to transport something across membrand against gradient
Organlle that does cellular respiration?
Mitochondrion
FADH2
Coensymes transfers electrons from Krebs cycle to ETC
NAD+
intermediate electron acceptor in glycolysis and krebs cycle
oxygen
strongest of all agents because it moves electrons away from C and toward electronegative O
Chemiosmosis
Protein complex wors like ion pump in reverse. uses energy of proton (H+) to power ATP synthesis.
ATP
energy source & cells use enzymes to remove P and attach to another
Glycolysis
Goal: to produce 2ATP and 2NADH per glucose molecule. splitting of sugar.