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312 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which of the following statements describes what all members of a population share? a. they are temporally isolated from one another.
b. they are geographically isolated from one another.
c. they are members of the same species
d. they have identical genes
c. they are members of the same species
Which statement about gene pools is typically true?
a. they contain 2 or more alleles for a gene.
b. they contain only dominant alleles
c. they belong to 2 or more interbreeding species.
d. the relative frequencies of the alleles never change.
a. they contain 2 or more alleles for each gene
if an allele makes up one 1/4 of a population's alleles for a given trait, its relative frequency is...
25 percent
in many kinds of organisms, most heritable differences are due to...
gene shuffling during gamete formation.
Gene shuffling includes the independent movement of chromosomes during meiosis as well as...
A single-gene trait that has 2 alleles and that shows a simple dominant-recessive pattern will result in...
two phenotypes
when individuals at only one end of a bell-shaped curve of phenotype frequencies have high fitness, the result is...
directional selection
when individuals with an average form of a trait have the highest fitness, the result is
stabilizing slection
genetic drift tends to occur in populations that...
are small.
the type of genetic drift that follows the colonization of a new habitat by a small group of individuals is called...
the founder effect.
the genetic equilibrium of a population can be disturbed by each of the following EXCEPT...
a. nonrandom mating
b. movement into and out of the population
c. a large population size
d. mutations
c. a large population size
the allele frequencies of a population are more likely to remain unchanged if...
all mating is random
What situation might develop in a population having some plants whose flowers open at midday and other plants whose flowers open late in the day?
temporal isolation
The combined genetic information of all members of a particular population is the population's...
gene pool.
a change in a sequence of DNA is called a ...
The two main sources of genetic variation are...
gene shuffling and mutations.
An example of a single-gene trait is...
a widow's peak in humans.
The number of phenotypes produced for a given trait depends upon...
the number of genes that control the trait.
The distribution of phenotypes for a typical plygenic trait can often be expressed as...
a bell-shaped curve.
Natural selection acts directly on...
Which of the following is NOT a way in which natural selection affects the distribution of phenotypes?
a. directional selection
b. stabilizing selection
c. disruptive selection
d. chance events
d. chance events
In genetic drift, allele frequencies change because of
which of the following events do biologists consider a random change?
a. directional selection
b. speciation
c. disruptive selection
d. genetic drift
d. genetic drift
The situation in which allele frequencies of a population remain constant is called...
genetic equilibrium.
One of the conditions required to maintain genetic equilibrium is...
no movement into or out of the population
The separation of populations by barriers such as rivers, mountains, or bodies of water is called...
geographic isolation
A factor that is necessary for the formation of a new species is...
reproductive isolation
what is the first step that occured in the speciation of the Galapagos finches?
arrival of the founding population
A gene pool typically contains two or more __ for each gene
Inheritable traits can be classified as either __ traits of polygenic triats.
Scientists assign each kind of organism a universally accepted name in the system known as...
binomial nomenclature
For many species, there are often regional differences in their...
common names
The second part of a scientific name is unique to each...
species in its genus.
Several different classes make up a...
Which two kindgoms did Linnaeus recognize?
plants and animals
Traditional classifications tended to take into account primarily...
general similarities in appearance
Sometimes organisms that are not closely related look similar because of...
convergent evolution
In an evolutionary classification scheme, species within one genus should...
be more similar to each other than they are to other species.
An analysis of derived characters is used to generate a...
What is true about dissimilar organisms such as a cow and a yeast?
Their degree of relatedness can be determined from their genes.
Scientists have found that humans and yeasts...
have similar genes for the assembly of certain proteins.
What kingdoms composed the three-kingdom classification system used by scientists in the 1800's?
animals, plants, protists
Which of the kingdoms in the six-kindom system of classification was once grouped with plants?
the three-domain system recognizes fundamental differences between two groups of...
Organisms in the kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaebacteria were previously grouped in a kingdom called...
In taxonomy, different classes of organisms might be grouped into the next larger category, a ___.
A ___ is a group of closely related species.
Biologists use a classification system to group organisms in part because organisms...
are very numerous and diverse
The study of organisms requires the use of...
both large and small categories of organisms
in binomial nomenclature, which of the two terms is capitalized?
the first term only
IN Linnaeus's system of classification, how many taxonomic categories were there?
A genus is composed of a number of related...
Animals that are warm blooded, have body hair and produce milk for their young are grouped in the class...
The procedure of grouping organisms based on their evolutionary history is called...
evolutionary classification
what do scientists consider when they perform cladistic analysis?
derived characters
similar genes are evidence of...
common ancestry
What do all organisms have in common?
They use DNA and RNA to pass on information.
All organisms in the kingdoms Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia are...
Which kingdom contains heterotrophs with cell walls of chitin?
The domain that includes the kingdom Eubacteria is
The domain that contains unicellular organisms that live in extreme environments is...
The three-domain system arose when scientists grouped organisms according to how long they have been...
evolving independently
When scientists use a ___ for an organism, they can be certain they are all discussing the same organism.
scientific name
The use of a two-part scientific name for organisms is called ___ nomenclature.
In Linnaeus's system of classification, the two smallest categories are genus and __
Ground tissue is found in plant
roots stems and leaves
Which of the following should a student examine under a compound microscope to observe cell division? a. epidermis of a leaf
b. tip of a shoot
c. xylem from a tree trunk
d. phloem from the leaf of a plant
b. tip of a shoot
if some of the xylem of a young oak tree was destroyed, it would most likely interfere with the tree's ability to...
conduct water to the leaves
which of the following are found mainly in monocots?
a. taproots
b. long, thick primary roots
c. extensive root systems
c. small secondary roots
c. extensive root systems
The vasuclar cylinder of a root consists of...
xylem and phloem
There is a one-way movement of water and minerals from the cortex into the vascualr cylinder of a root because...
the Casparian strip is waterproof
Root pressure...
a. causes a plant's roots to absorb water
b. forces the water in xylem downward.
c. is produced in the cortex of the root
d. is produced in the vascular cylinder by active transport
d. is produced in the vascular cylinder by active transport
The vascular tissue in a plant's stem
a. has buds.
b. is ontinuous from the roots
c. carries nutrients up the stem but not down.
d. consists of nodes.
b. is continuous from the roots
Vascular bundles are
a. surrounded by pith in monocot stems
b. found only ifn dicot roots
c. scattered throughout dicot stems
d. surrounded by parenchyma in both monocot and dicot stems
d. surrounded by parenchyma in both monocot and dicot stems
In dicot plants, secondary growth...
produces wood
Most of the photosynthetic activity in plants takes place in the...
the stomata of leaves are usually open in
light if a plant has enough water
Which of the following terms is LEAST related to the other terms?
a. oxygen
b. stomata
c. carbon dioxide
d. companion cells
d. companion cells
Water will move higher in a narrow glass tube than in a wide glass tube because of...
capillary action
A seed plant is anchored in the ground by its...
What is the only tisse that produces new plant cells?
meristematic tissue
Vascular tissue in plants consists of...
xylem and phloem
In angiosperms, xylem consists of tracheids and...
vessel elements
A carrot is a...
a. taproot
b. fibrous root
c. monocot
d. extensive root system
a. taproot
The layer of cells that encloses the vascular tissue in the central region of a root is the ...
Minerals from the soil move into roots by...
active transport
One of the main functions of stems is to...
transport substances between roots and leves
The primary growth of a stem
a. is produced by cell division in the cambium
b. is produced by cell division in the xylem and phloem
c. increases the length of the stem
d. increases the width of the stem
c. increases the length of the stem
The movemebt of gases in and out of the leaf is regulated by...
gaurd cells
The attraction of water molecules to other molecules is called...
Through which plant cells does water move by capillary action?
xylem cells
the movement of sugars in a plant can be explained by...
The pressure-flow hypothesis
In gymnosperms, ovules are located near the base of each...
The sterile leaves of a flower are the...
sepals and petals
A pollen grain landing near an ovule produces a...
pollen tube
in angiosperms, the nucleus of each pollen grain undergoes...
one mitotic division
The endosperm of a corn seed develops through the process of...
double fertilization
Which of the following is NOT true of all fruits?
a. all fruits contain seeds
b. all fruits are sweet
c. all fruits help disperse seeds
d. all fruits are formed from the ovary wall
b. all fruits are sweet
A seed that is dispersed to an area far away from the parent plant might face less...
seeds dispersed by animals typically are contained in...
fleshy nutritious fruit
A period during which the embryo of a seed is alive but not growing is...
what is true of the seed coat during germination?
a. it must crack open
b. it cannot be damaged if germination is to occur
c. it dissolves in water
d. it is absorbed by the growing plant
a. it must crack open
when a plant reproduces vegetatively, its offspring...
are genetically indentical
the horizontal stems of strawberry plants are called
What would be the best method of propagating most woody plants?
grafting or budding
Corn, sugar beets, cauliflower, and cabbage were all developed by...
selective breeding
In gymnosperms, __ produce the male gametophytes.
In the gymnosperm seed, the __ is part of the old sporophyte generation.
Pollen grains are produced by...
male reproductive structures
In angiosperms, reproduction takes place in...
A sticky secretion on the scales of seed cones traps...
pollen grains
in an angiosperm, pollen grains are produced in the...
The triploid cell that grows into a food-rich tissue in the seed is called the...
a ripened ovary that contains seeds is called a...
Seeds that are dispersed by wind and water typically are...
seeds of temperate plants tend to germinate in...
The early growth stage of a plant embryo is called...
some plants reproduce vegetatively by producing...
A parent plant and its plantlets...
are genetically identical
Grafting usually works best when plants are...
IN a grafting, the cut stem that is attached to the parent plant is called the...
Most people in the world depend on food crops such as...
wheat, rice, and corn
in a flower's stamen, the filament is topped by an __
a sperm nucleus moves toward a flower's ovary through a long passageway called a pollen__
a fruit is a ripened ___ that contains angiosperm seeds
Many lightweight seeds are dispersed by wind or __
The efficiency of agriculture has been improved through the __ of crop plants and imrovements in farming techniques
selective breathing
Name four types of specialized leaves in a flower.
sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels
Which of the following is NOT part of the axial skeleton?
a. skull
b. vertebral column
c. pelvis
d. rib cage
c. pelvis
How many bones are found in an adult human skeleton?
what contains nerves and blood vessels and runs through the compact bone?
haversian canals
Which of the following is true about red marrow?
a. it makes blood cells
b. it stores fat
c. it produces new bone
d. it is found in compact bones of adults
a. it makes blood cells
What is the function of cells called oseoclasts?
to break down bone
About what percent of the mass of the human body is made up of muscle?
over 40%
where is the protein called actin located in the body?
thin filaments
IN addition to myosin, what other protein is involved in skeletal muscle contraction?
which of the following types of muscle generally remain in a state of partial contraction when you are keeping your legs straight?
skeletal muscle
The top layer of the epidermis is made of
flat, dead cells
Which of the following is NOT a function of skin?
a. helps regulate body temp.
b. removes body wastes
c. contracts and relaxes muscles
d. helps prevent infection
c. contracts and relaxes muscles
Which of the following is NOT part of the integumentary system?
a. skin
b. cartilage
c. nails
d. hair
b. cartilage
What provides support for the body, attachment sites for muscles, and protection for internal organs?
which of the following is NOT a function of bones in the human skeletal system?
a. storing minerals
b. regulating body temp
c. moving body parts
d. protecting organs
b. regulating body temp
the main function of the skull is to
protect the brain
the periosteum is a ...
tough layer of connective tissue surrounding a bone
Of what is the skeleton of a newborn baby mainly compposed?
ligaments connect
bone to bone
Where is cardiac muscle tissue located in the body?
what heppens when the thin filaments in a muscle fiber slide over the thick filaments?
a muscle contracts
Myosin and actin make up
what tough connective tissue joins skeletal muscles to bones?
the most important function of the skin is
what two layers make up skin?
epidermis and dermis
what are tubelike pockets of epidermal cells that extend into the dermis?
hair follicles
Which of the following is NOT a part of the circulatory system?
a. heart
b. air passageway
c. blood vessels
d. blood
b. air passageway
what pathway is the largest of the circulatory system?
systemic circulation
where are the cells that make up the sinoatrial node, or pacemaker, located?
right atrium
compared with the walls of areteries, the walls of veins are...
the function of valves in the human circulatory system is to...
prevent the backward flow of blood
which helps regulate blood pressure?
which of the following activities are keys to avoiding cardiovascular disease?
a. exercise
b. low-fat diet
c. weight control
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
How much blood does the human body contain?
4-6 liters
INto what substance is fibrinogen converted?
which of the following is NOT a function of the lymphatic system?
a. collects and returns lost fluid to the circulatory system
b. traps bacteria
c. absorbs protein
d. carries fat-soluble vitamins to the blood
c. absorbs protein
Air is filtered, warmed, and moistened in the...
Air is forced into the lungs by the contraction of the
what gas, found in cigarette smoke, blocks the transport of oxygen by hemoglobin in the blood?
carbon monoxide
which body system acts as a transportation system?
in the walls of the heart there are two thin lagers that form a sandwich around a thick layer of muscle called the...
What is the smallest of the blood vessels?
Which of the following is NOT a type of blood vessel?
a. artery
b. vein
c. lymphatic cell
d. capillary
c. lymphatic cell
When the heart contracts, it produces a wave of fluid pressure in the...
When the pressure of blood pumping through the blood vessels is constantly too high, the condition is known as...
Which of the following is correct about the composition of plasma?
a. 90% water
b. 50% water
c. 10% water
d. no water
a. 90% water
Which plasma proteins help to regulate osmotic pressure and blood volume?
what blood cells contain hemoblobin?
red blod cells
which body system collects the fluid that is lost by the blood and returns it to the body's transport system?
What is the term used to descrbe a swelling of the tissues due to the accumulation of excess fluid, which can occur when lymphatic vessels are blocked because of injury or disease?
The process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between cells, the blood, and air in the lungs is one type of...
What structure serves as a passageway for both air and food?
Generally speaking, what controls breathing?
the brain
Which of the following is NOT contained in tobacco smoke?
a. carbon monoxide
b. caffeine
c. nicotine
d. tar
b. caffeine
A circulating fluid called__ is pumped through a system of vessels in the body
The iron-containing protein called__ binds to oxygen in the lungs and transports it to tissues throughout the body, where the oxygen is realeased.
inhaled air passes from the trachea to one of the two__
breathing is such an important function that your __ system will let you have complete control over it.
The energy available in foods can be measured by...
burning the foods
Inorganic molecules that perform vital functions in the body are called...
the American Heart Association recommends a diet with a maximum of...
30% of Calories from fat, of which only 10% should be from saturated fats
what is the minimum aount of water you should drink every day?
1 liter
water is lost from the body by each of the following EXCEPT...
a. sweating
b. urinating
c. respiration
d. digestion
d. digestion
According to the Food Guide Pyramid, the majority of food in your diet should be from the ...
Bread, Cereal, Rice, and Pasta Group
What is one of the roles of the pancreas in nutrition?
neutralizes acids
where does the process of chemical digestion begin?
Through which structure do wastes pass into the rectum?
large intestine
Water is extracted from digested food in the body primarily by the...
large intestine
The function of the excretory system is to help maintain homeostasis by...
removing wastes
Which of the following is NOT part of a nephron?
What percentage of the filtrate's water that enters Bowman's capsule s reabsorbed into the blood?
almost 99%
What materials are removed from the blood through dialysis?
urea and excess salts
Calcium, iron, and magnesium are all examples of the group of nutrients called __
Most of the blood, lymph, and other bodily fluids consist of __
the teeth are extremely important in __ digestion
Gastric glands produce mucus, hydrochloric acid, and the enzyme __
To a large extent, the activity of the kidneys is controlled by the compostion of __
The energy to perform actions, as well as the materials from which body cells and tissues are made, comes from...
A calorie is the amount of energy needed to...
raise the temp. of 1gram of water by 1 degree Celsius
Substances that are needed by the body for growth, repair, and maintenance are called...
The raw materials that the body needs for growth and repair come from...
Proteins are made of polymers called...
amino acids
Which of the following structures is made up mostly of water?
a. blood
b. lymph
c. body fluids
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
How many food groups make up the Food Guide Pyramid?
What passage carries food between the pharynx and the stomach?
What enzyme found in saliva breaks chemical bonds between the sugar monomers in starches?
The stomach breaks down food into a soft, partially digested mixture called...
The main organs of the excretory system are the...
In the kidnew=ys, both useful substances and wastes are removed from the blood by...
The activity of the kidneys is controlled by hormones and by the...
composition of the blood
Dialysis performs the function of the...
The science of __ is the study of food and its effects on the body.
Contractions, known as __ squeeze food through the length of the esophagus into the stomach.
If a part of the stomach wall digests itself, a __ develops
The functional units of the kidneys are the __
The kidneys play an important role in maintaining __ in the body.
The endocrine system is made up of ...
Which of the following is a gland of the endocrine system?
a.sweat gland
b. tear gland
c. pituitary gland
d. all of the above
c. pituitary gland
In the action of steroid hormones, the hormone-receptor complex...
activates genes
Which endocrine gland secretes sex hormones?
Which gland fails to produce enough of its hormone in the disease diabetes mellitus?
puberty usually begins between the ages of...
9 and 15
The testes and the ovaries do not begin making active reproductive cells until...
Which organ system is responsble for making and delivering sperm?
male reproductive system
One menstrual cycle usually lasts about a...
In which organ does gastrulation occur?
What forms during gastrulation?
endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm
Which stage of the human life cycle occurs first?
The placenta connects the...
fetus to the mother's uterus
__ are chemicals that travel through the bloodstream and activates the activities of other cells.
hormonelike substances that generally affect only nearby cells and tissues are __
__ is a period of rapid growth and sexual maturation during the reproductive system becomes fully functional.
In the female body, each egg is surrounded by a __ in which the egg matures.
Almost everything that the mother takes into her body passes through the __ to the embryo.
The endocrine system...
releases hormones into the blood system
Unlike endocrine glands, exocrine glands...
have ducts
A thermostat is a good example of a ...
feedback system
which gland produces epinephrine and nonrepinephrine?
Which of the following secondary sex characteristics is caused by testosterone?
a. deepeningof voice
b. widening of hips
c. development of breasts
a. depening of voice
Which structure produces sperm?
seminiferous tubules
When during the menstrual cycle does an egg have the best chance of being fertilized?
at the beginning of the luteal phase
menstruation does not occur if...
the egg is fertilized
A zygote is...
a fertilized egg
The chances of fertilization are very good if sperm are present when an...
egg is in a Fallopian tube
what is required for fertilization to occur inside the female body?
Sperm must swim into a Fallopian tube.
an egg must be present in the Fallopian tube.
The nucleus of a sperm must enter an egg
What is the result of gastrulation?
germ layers
What is a function of the placenta?
providing nutrients to the fetus
What is a characteristic of infancy?
teeth appear
Diseases are caused by...
a. pathogens
b. cigarette smoke
c. fungi
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
An example of an infectious disease that is spread in the air is...
How can you prevent the spread of Lyme disease?
Avoid areas where ticks may be present.
Antibiotics fight infections by...
killing bacteria
The inflammatory response can cause...
pain, swelling, and fever
If the skin is cut or broken, an infection can result from microorganisms...
on the skin
Unlike in passive immunity, in active immunity antibodies are produced by...
your own body
humoral immunity is carried out by...
Asthma is an example of...
the immune system's overreacting to an antigen
The sneezing, runny nose, and itchy eyes associated with allergies are caused when...
mast cells release histamines
Autoimmune diseases result when the immune system...
fails to distinguish self from nonself
HIV spreads through the body by...
replicating inside the cells of the immune system
Cancer cells affect other cells in the body by...
taking in nutrients needed by other cells
Transplanted organs may be rejected in the type of immune response called...
cell-mediated immunity
The germ theory of disease states that infectious diseases are caused by...
An infectious disease is one that is caused by...
How are infectious diseases spread?
through coughing, sneezing, or physical contact; through contaminated water and food; by infected animals
Compounds that kill bacterial cells without harming the cells of humans or other animals are called...
The body's nonspecific defenses against invading pathogens include...
mucus, sweat, and tears
The body's most important nonspecific defense is...
the skin
An immune response is triggered by ...
an antigen
The symptoms of allergies include...
sneezing and watery eyes
An example of an autoimmune disease is...
multiple sclerosis
Doctors first suspected AIDS was weakening the immune system of infected patients when their patients developed...
rare infections
HIV weakens the immune system by killing...
helper T cells
Cancer can be caused by...
A benign tumor is one that...
does not spread to other parts of the body
Regular exercise helps maintain health by...
moving blood through the body, maintaining cardiovascular fitness, helping to maintain weight
The process by which organ systems maintain a relatively constant internal environment is called...
Which system coordinates the body's respone to changes in its internal and external environments?
nervous system
What begins when a neuron is stimulated by another neuron in its environment?
an impulse
What is the function of the central nervous system?
to relay messages, to process info., to analyze info.
lWhich division of the peripheral nervous system transmitts impulses from sense organs to the central nervous system?
sensory division
Which general category of sensory receptors detects variations in temperature?
Which of the five senses contains two types of photoreceptors called rods and cones?
Drugs that increase heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate are called...
Which illegal drug is most widely abused?
How many organ systems make up the human body?
A group of similar cells that perform a single function is called a
which type of tissue lines your internal organs?
which type of tissue provides support for the body?
what are the two divisions of the peripheral nervous system?
sensory and motor
what system does alcohol immediately effect?
The four basic types of tissue in the human body are...
muscle, nervous, connective, and epithelial
The levels of organization in the body include...
cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems
What sensory receptor is located everywhere in the body except the brain?
pain receptors
What is the function of neurotransmitters?
to transmit nerve impulses across synapses
What is a function of the cerebrum?
to control conscious activities of the body
What types of drugs slow down the activity of the central nervous system?
The region of the brain that recognizes hunger is the...
when an action poential reaches the end of a neuron, it triggers the release of...
neurons are categorized by the...
direction in which they carry impulses
which process enables the body to maintain a stable temp?
feedback inhibition
what is the smallest structural and functional unit of the nervous system?
the division of the nervous system that regulates activities that are under conscious control is the...
somatic nervous system
sense organs are part of the...
peripheral nervous system
alcohol does each of the following EXCEPT...
stimulate heart rate