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72 Cards in this Set

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tonoplast
液泡
sap vacuole
汁液液泡
cell wall
tough outer layer around plant cells made up mainly of cellulose
细胞壁
cellulose
complex carbohydrate which is a major component of plant cell walls
纤维素
isomer
one of two or more compounds made up of the same atoms arranged differently
同分异构体
hydrogen bond
the weak electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged dipoles of different molecules
氢键
cross-linking
intermolecular bonds which hold cellulose chains together
交联
microfibril
a group of 10-100000 cellulose molecules
维纤丝
matrix
surrounding substance
矩阵
hemicelluloses
半纤维素
mannose
甘露糖
xylose
木糖
arabinose
阿拉伯糖
composite material
material made up of a combination of two or more substances which all contribute to the properties of the final composite
复合材料
turgid
swollen, firm, used to describe plant cells that are fully hydrated
肿胀
flaccid
floppy
松弛
suberin
waxy, waterproof compound
木栓脂
lignin
organic compound that binds to cellulose fibres and makes them hard and strong
木质素
middle lamella
first layer of the plant cell wall to be formed during cell division
中间层
pectin
a glue-like polysaccharide
果胶
primary cell wall
flexible plant cell walls with cellulose microfibrils orientated in same direction
原生壁
secondary cell wall
inflexible, rigid plant cell wall built up as cellulose microfibrils are laid densely at different angles to each other
次生壁
perennials
多年生植物
plant fibre
long plant cells with heavily lignified cell walls
植物纤维
plasmodesmata
sites of intercellular exchanges through cytoplasmic bridges between plant cells
胞间连丝
symplast
interconnected cytoplasm between plant cells
共质体
tonoplast
the membrane surrounding plant vacuoles which controls the movement of substances into and out of the vacuole
液泡
cell sap
contents of vacuole in plant cells
细胞液
chloroplast
organelle in some plant cells which contains chlorophyll, site of photosynthesis
叶绿体
thylakoid
类囊体
granum
基粒
stroma
基质
lipid droplet
脂滴
palisade mesophyll
叶肉栅栏
xylem vessel
木质部导管
phloem sleve tube
韧皮部导管
phloem companion cell
韧皮部伴胞
waxy cuticle
蜡质角质层
stoma
气孔
spongy mesophyll
叶肉海绵
biconvex
双凸
chlorophyll
green pigment found in plants which traps energy from sunlight, needed for photosynthesis
叶绿素
leucoplast
a range of plant organelles
白色体
amyloplast
plant organelles involved in amylopectin (a form of starch)
淀粉体
epidermis
outer layer of cells in a plant leaf, outer layers of the skin
表皮
cutin
a waxy, waterproof polymer which covers the surface of plants
角质
parenchyma
relatively unspecialised plant tissue
薄壁组织
collenchyma
supporting tissue in plants
厚角组织
sclerenchyma
strengthening and supporting tissue found in plants, made up of heavily lignified, thick walled cells
厚壁
sclereid
a plant cell with thick,lignified walls
石细胞
xylem
main tissue transporting water from the roots around a plant. the walls of oxylem vessels are heavily lignified, all the older vessels are non-living
木质部
phloem
living transport tissue in plants that carries dissolved food from the leaves around the plant
韧皮部
cambium
layer of unspeialised cells which divide, giving rise to more specialised cells that form both the xylem and phloem
形成层
protoxylem
first xylem tissue to form in a stem or root
初生木质层
metaxylem
the xylem which develops second, after the protoxylem
后生木质层
pit
gaps in the cell walls that allow communication between cells
深基坑
autoradiography
a technique using photographic film to show up radioactively labelled substances in plants and other organisms.
显影
scintillation counter
闪烁计数器
translocation
movement of substances around plants
移位
transpiration
the loss of water vapour from the surface of a plant
蒸腾
potometer
apparatus used to measure uptake of water by a plant
测量植物吸水的仪器
cohesion
tendency of water molecules to stick together
凝聚力
tensile strength
strength to resist pulling forces
拉伸强度
adhesion
attraction of different molecules
附着力
root hair
microscopic extensions of the membranes of the outer root cells
根发
vacuole pathway
pathway through cell vacuoles travelled by water molecules moving down a concentration gradient by osmosis from soil to xylem as part of transpiration stream
液泡途径
symplast pathway
pathway through cytoplasm travelled by water molecules moving down a concentration gradient by osmosis from soil to xylem as part of transpiration stream
共质体途径
symplast
interconnected cytoplasm between plant cells
共质体
apoplast pathway
pathway through cell walls travelled by water molecules from soil to xylem as part of transpiration stream
质外体途径
casparian strip
waterproof layer of cells in a root containing suberin
凯氏带
guttation
when water is forced out of leaves in drops as a result of root pressure when transpiration rates are low
吐水
root pressure
movement of water up the plant from the roots involving active transport
根压力