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17 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what is alcoholic fermentation?
a process in which some sugars (as glucose) are converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide by the action of various yeasts, molds, or bacteria on carbohydrate materials (as dough or sugar solutions) some of which do not themselves undergo fermentation but can be hydrolyzed into fermentable substances (as in the production of alcohol and alcoholic beverages)
what are the steps in anaerobic pathways?
fermentation pathways that operate in the absence in oxygen to produce a small amount of ATP.
what is cellular respiration?
the process in which cells make ATP by breaking down organic componuds
what is fermentation?
a process in which cells make a limited amount of ATP by converting glucose into another organic compound such as lactic acid or ethyl alcohol without using oxygen
what is a kilocalorie
one thousand colries
what is a kilocalorie?
a thousand calories
what is lactic acid fermentation?
the process by which pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acid.
what is NAD+?
nictinamide adenine dinucleotide; an organic molecule that accepts electrons during redox reactions
what is pyrivic acid?
a water-soluble liquid, C3H4O3, important in many metabolic and fermentative processes, having an odor resembling that of acetic acid, prepared by the dehydration of tartaric acid: used chiefly in biochemical research.
what is acetyl coenzyme A?
the acetylated form of coenzyme A, formed as an intermediate in the oxidation of carbohydrates, fats, and protein in animal metabolism.
what is aerobic resperation?
the process in which cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds, with oxygen as the final electron acceptor.
what is citric acid?
a white, crystalline, water-soluble powder, C6H8O7·H2O, a tribasic acid having a strong acidic taste, an intermediate in the metabolism of carbohydrates occurring in many fruits, esp. limes and lemons, obtained chiefly by fermentation of crude sugar or corn sugar: used chiefly in the flavoring of beverages, confections, and pharmaceuticals.
what is an electron transport chain?
molecules in the thylakoid membrane ot inner mitochondrial membrane that uses some of the energy in electrons to pump protons across the membrane
what is FAD?
flavin adenine dinucleotide.
what is the Krebs cycle?
a cycle of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in living cells that is the final series of reactions of aerobic metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fatty acids, and by which carbon dioxide is produced, oxygen is reduced, and ATP is formed.
what is the mitochondrial matrix?
the space inside the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.
what is oxaloacetic acid?
a crystalline organic acid, C4H4O5, that is an important intermediate in the Krebs cycle, where it is formed by the oxidation of malic acid and is acetylated to form citric acid: also a product of transamination reactions of aspartic acid.