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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Glucose catabolism is also known as_____and is completed in the _____.
aerobic respiration; mitochondria
1. What is the initial site of gastrulation in amphibians?
2. In amphibians, what is the infolding through which blastula migrate during gastrulation?
3. What is the archenteron?
1. gray crescent
2. blastopore
3. primitive gut that results from gastrulation
T/F: Proteins can self-replicate.
Four characteristics of human gamete.
1. contains haploid genes
2. have X and Y chromosome
3. is a result of meiosis
4. has genetic material that has undergone recombination
Which organelle lacks a membrane?
What is cAMP?
a second messenger formed from ATP via adenylate cyclase that triggers a cascade of intracellular reactions after a hormone binds to the cell membrane
The Krebs Cycle:
a. occurs in:
b. is linked to glycolysis via:
c. produces:
a. mitochondrial matrix
b. pyruvate
What occurs during glycolysis?
1. converts 1 molecule of glucose to 2 pyruvate
2. produces 2 net ATP
3. in abscence of O2, can undergo fermentation
4. NADH is produced
Where does oxidative phosphorylation occur?
inner membrane
Unequal division of the cytoplasm occurs in:
production of egg cells
What does a portal system do?
carries blood from one set of capillaries through vein to another set of capillaries
Epithelial cells replicate via:
Tetrads form during:
meiosis I; prophase I
Fusion of nuclei of two gametes occurs in:
Results in the formation of polar bodies:
meiosis (oogenesis)
What is the function of the lymphatic system?
to return excess interstitial fluid to the circulatory and keep it from building up in the tissues
Where does the lymphatic system join with the circulatory system?
the thoracic duct
What are two other functions of the lymphatic system?
1. to enhance immune system via lymph nodes
2. to absorb fats via lacteals
What is the function of surfactant in the alveoli during respiration?
1. to reduce surface tension
2. facilitate gas exchange
3. keep alveoli from collapsing
What is the role of panting?
to cool down body temperature via evaporation
What is an immune response of the respiratory system?
the nose; it traps foreign matter inhaled through the air and expels it via sneezing/coughing
When a drop in blood pH occurs, does the body increase or decrease ventilation?
the rate and depth of ventilation is increased
Name the structures and the order O2 travels through them, ending with red blood cells.
nose-pharynx-larynx-trachea-lungs-bronchus-bronchioles-alveolar duct-alveolar sac-surfactant-alveolar membrane-capillary membrane-red blood cells
Will blood pressure affect the amount of O2 delivered to tissues?
no; three things that WILL affect the amount of O2 delivered to tissues is the surface area of the RBC's and alveoli, and the respiration rate
In negative pressure breathing, inhalation results from:
contraction of the diaphragm
In "dead spaces" in alveoli, the pressures of O2 and CO2 differ how?
gas exchange doesn't occur in dead space, so the P O2 is identical to atm P of O2. O2 is taken up by blood, and CO2 is forced out in functioning alveoli; therefore, P O2 will be lower in alveoli than in dead spaces, and P CO2 will be higher than in dead spaces
A person with emphysema has a ______ P O2 and a _______ P CO2 in the blood compared to a normal person.
lower; greater
Which immune cells remain dormant in the lymph nodes until activated by an antigen?
B cells
Why is DNA replication semi-conservative?
because half of the original DNA is incorporated into each daughter strand
Where does RNA polymerase bind to at the beginning of transcription?
the promotor region; TATA box of the DNA molecule
Translation occurs in the _____ and uses energy in the form of _____.
cytoplasm; GTP
What are three small scale mutations that can occur to DNA?
1. Base substitution: A and G are substituted by each other; same with C or T, OR: A or G are substituted by a C or T and visa versa
2. insertions
3. deletions
Name the 5 DNA repair mechanisms:
1. Direct Repair: reverses damage w/out cutting into sugar backbone
2. Base Excision Repair: used when incorrect bases are present in DNA; they are cut out and new, correct bases are put in
3. Mismatch Repairs
4. Nucleotide Excision Repair: removes thymine dimers that result from UV light damage to DNa
5. Post-Replication Repair: fixes double strand breaks; translocations often result
The dark stained regions of DNA are _____ while the light stained are _____.
heterochromatin; euchromatin
Centrosomes are the sight of _____ formation.
Where can telomeres be found?
at the ends of chromosomes
What are two levels of DNA packing?
1. nucleosome (one histone/DNA unit)
2. 30 nm fiber (loops linked by linker DNA/H1)
What are the two categories of chromosomal abnormalities?
1. Numerical
2. Structural
What is the difference b/w constitutional and somatic chromosome abnormalities?
constitutional are in all body cells while somatic are cell specific chromosome abnormalities
What is:
a. aneuploidy
b. monosomy
c. trisomy
d. tetrasomy
a. complete chromosomes are missing or in excess (nondisjunction)
b. loss of one chromosome
c. gain of one chromosome
d. gain of extra pair of homologous chromosomes
Which numerical chromosomal abnormality causes the following?
a. Turner's Syndrome
b. If autosomal, is always lethal
c. Down's Syndrome
a. monosomy
b. monosomy
c. trisomy
What is:
a. euploidy
b. polyploidy
c. monoploidy
a. a extra, complete set of chromosomes are missing
b. more than 2 sets of chromosomes are present
c. a set of chromosomes are missing
Which type of chromosomal abnormality results in no change of the chromosome number?
structural (duplications, deletions, translocations)
Why is mitochondria only maternally inherited?
because paternal mitochondria is destroyed when the sperm enters the egg during fertilzation
What type of mutation results in cystic fibrosis?
loss of function of a gene; normal gene codes for membrane protein that transports chloride ions in and out of cells
What type of mutation does Huntington's Disease arise from?
gain of function of a gene; caused by an expansion of a triplet repeat that code for glutamine; ultimately leads to cell death in nervous system
How are oncogenes activated?
1. point mutations
2. amplification
3. chromosomal translocation
4. transposition
What is:
1. chromosomal translocation
2. transposition
1. novel gene is created
2. gene moved from inactive chromatin to active chromatin
A mutation in a tumor suppressor gene will result in:
cancer via loss of function of a gene
How can a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene occur?
1. deletion
2. point mutation
3. methylation of DNA that prevents TS gene from being transcribed