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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the two main groups of red blood cell antigens?
ABO group and Rh factor
What are antigens?
macromolecules that are foreign to the host organism and trigger an immune response
What is the universal recipient?
AB blood because it is the universal because it has neither A nor B antibodies
What is the universal donor?
won't elicit a response from the recipient's immune system since it does not possess any surface antigens
When is consideration of the Rh factor necessary?
during pregnancy
erythroblastosis fetalis
when maternal Rh+ antibodies cross the placenta of a Rh- baby

(this cannot be caused by anti-A or anti-B antibodies as they cannot cross the placenta)
immune globin
can be delivered to a woman once she gave birth to prevent her from making Rh+ antibodies if her child was Rh+ and she is Rh-
What is the main component of the immune system?
Formation and dissociation of carbonic acid are catalyzed by the enzyme?
carbonic andydrase
Where do HCO3- and H+ reassociate to form CO2 and H2O?
Bohr effect
increasing concentrations of H+ (a decrease in pH) and CO2 (increase of HCO3-) in the blood decrease hemoglobin's O2 affinity
Where are amino acids and simple sugars absorbed into the bloodstream?
intestinal capillaries
Through what do amino acids and simple sugars enter the kidneys?
heptatic portal vein
How do fats enter the lymphatic system and then the bloodstream?
lymph capillaries in the small intestine, large veins in neck
Exchange of materials is influenced by the balance between what?
hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure
Hydrostatic pressure does what?
pushes fluid out of vessels
Osmotic pressure does what?
pulls fluid back into vessels
Hydrostatic pressure depends on what?
blood pressure driven by the heart
Osmotic pressure depends on what?
number of particles dissolved in the plasma

The hydrostatic pressure at the arteriole end of the capillaries is greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the surrounding tissue fluids (interstitial tissue).
What causes fluid to move back into the capillaries at the venule end?
osmotic pressure- because blood has a higher solute concentration than the tissue fluid
What is the hydrostatic pressure at the arteriole end of the capillary bed?
36 mm Hg
What is the osmotic pressure at the arteriole end of the capillary bed?
25 mm Hg
Fluid is forced in or out at the arteriole end?
Fluid is forced in or out at the venule end?