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88 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What does digestion consist of?
degradation of large molecules into smaller molecules that can be absorbed into the bloodstream and used directly by cells
Intracellular digestion
occurs within the cell

(normally in membrance bound organelles)
Extracellular digestion
process that occurs outside of the cell (within a lumen or a tract)
What is the one-way digestive tract called that mammels possess?
alimentary canal
What does the human digestive tract begin with?
oral cavity
What major part of the human digestive tract comes after the oral cavity?
What part of the digestive tract comes after the pharynx and before the stomach?
Does the large or small intestine come after the stomach?
small intestine
Name four accessory organs that are part of digestion?
salivary glands, pancreas, liver and gall bladder
Simple epithelium
single layer of cells
stratified epithelium
multiple layers of cells
pseudostratified epithelium
single layer of cells but appears stratified because its cells vary in height
What are the three types of cell shapes?
cuboidal, columnar, squamous (square-like)
What is the name of a specialized epithelium that lines most body cavities?
mucous membrane, mucosa
What is the inner surface of the epithelium attatched to?
basement membrane
Mechanical digestion
breakdown of large food particles into smaller ones through the biting and chewing action of teeth (mastication)
Chemical digestion
the enzymatic breakdown of macromolecules into smaller molecules
What is the name of the enzyme that is found in saliva that hydolyzes starch into simple sugars?
salivary amylase (ptyalin)
What do you call the ball the tongue rolls food into?
Where does the tongue push the bolus?
into the pharynx
What covers the trachea during swallowing?
What are the two substances that can pass through the pharynx?
air and food
What two things does the esophagus connect?
pharynx and stomach
What are the involuntary muscle contractions called that move food down the esophagus?
After a peristaltic wave, what muscle opens and then closes?
lower esophageal sphincter or cardiac sphincter
What three types of secretory cells compose the gastric glands that line the stomach walls?
mucous cells
chief cells
parietal cells
What do mucus cells do?
secrete mucus, which protects the stomach lining form the acidic juices found at pH = 2
Gastric juices are composed of the secretions of what two cells?
chief cells and parietal cells
What do chief cells secrete?
pepsinogen, the zymogen of the protein-hydrolyzing enzyme pepsin
What do parietal cells secrete?
What functions does HCl have in the stomach?
- kills bacteria
- dissolves the intracelluar glue holding food tissues together
- facilitates the conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin
Pepsin does what, huh???
hydolyzes specific peptide bonds to yield polypeptide fragments
Gastrin stimulates what, hmmm???
the gastric gland sto secrete more HCl and muscular contraction of the stomach to churn foods
What do you call the acidic, semi-fluid mixture of partially digested food?
Where is the pyloric sphincter found?
at the junction of the stomach and the small intestine
What does the pyloric sphincter do?
regulates the passage of chyme from the stomach into the small intestine via contractions and relaxations
What is the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome?
a rare disease resulting from a gastrin-secreting tumor nomally found in the pacreas

-the most notable result of this disease is the presence of severe, intractable ulcer desease (because of the stimulation of HCl production)
What is pyloric stenosis?
a severe narrowing of th epyloric sphincter

-most often found in babies where it can be surgically corrected
What are the three sections found in the small intestine?
duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
What is the approximate length of the small intestine?
6 m
What are the finger-like projections called that extend from the intestinal submucosa?
What are the tiny cytoplasmic projections called that project form the surface of the individual cells lining the villi?
What is the approximate surface are of the small intestine?
300 m^2
Where does most of the digestion occur in the small intestine?
What mixes together in the duodenum?
secretions of the intestinal glands, pacreas, liver and gall bladder, acidic chyme
What secretes enterokinase?
intesinal glands
What is the active form of trypsinogen?
What secretes trypsinogen?
What does trypsin do?
it converts chymotrysinogen to its active form chymotrysin
What secretes chymotrypsinogen?
What does carboxypeptidase and aminopeptidase do together?
digests polypeptides into amino acids
What secretes aminopeptidase?
intestinal glands
In the presence of chyme, what hormone is secreted into the bloodstream by the duodenum?
cholecystokinin (CCK)
What does cholecystokinin do?
stimulates the secretion of pancreatic enzymes and the release of bile
Which organ secretes bile?
Is bile alkaline or acidic?
Which organ stores and concentrates bile?
gall bladder
Where does the gall bladder release the bile?
What is bile composed of?
bile salts, bile pigments and cholesterol

Bile salts are molecules with a water-soluble region on one end and a fat-soluble region on the other.
Bile salts have a structure similar to that of detergents, how does this help them do their jobs?
allows bile salts to emulsify fat globules and maintain these particles in finely dispersed complexes called micelles
Are micelles soluble in aqueous media?
Putting fat particles into prison, or in scientific terms, confining them to micelles is called?
emulsification of fat

(exposes more of the lipids surface area to the their torturers, lipases
Lipases torture and tear apart whom?

(hydrolyze fat into glycerol and fatty acids)
The amount of bile released is proportional to what?
fat ingested
What happens if you just had three helping of Burger King fries and your chyme is particularly fatty?
the duodenum releases its secrete weopon... the hormone enterogastone
What the hell does enterogastrone do???
inhibits stomach peristalisis, thus slowing down the release of chyme into the small intestine... this means it takes fats a longer time to digest than the other macromolecules
Parasympathetic nervous system does what to the digestive processes?
stimulate them
Sympathetic nervous system can do what to digestive processes?
inhibits them
Where does the majority of nutrient absorption take place?
Across the walls of the jejunum and the ileum
How are monosaccharides absorbed?
active transport and facilitated diffusion
How are amino acids absorbed?
active transport
How do monosaccharides, amino acids and small fatty acids diffuse directly into portal circulation?
hepatic portal vein
Where do larger fatty acids, glycerol, and cholesterol diffuse?
Musocal cells
What are chylomicrons made of?
triglycerides (phosphoglyceride and cholesterol), phosphoglyceride
What are the chylomicrons secreted into?
tiny lymph vessels within the villi called lacteals
What are four fat soluble vitamins?
A,D E and K
How are vitamin B complexes and vitamin C absorbed?
Simple diffusion across the circulatory system
About how many liters of fluid enter the small intestine every day?
How long is the large intestine?
1.5 m
What are the three parts of the large intestine?
cecum, colon and rectum
What is found at the tip of the cecum?
Is the appendix a vestigial structure?
What does the colon do?
helps absorb salts and water that the small intestine did not already absorb
What happens when digested matter passes to quickly through the colon?
diarrhea and dehydration
What happens when digested matter passes to slowly through the bowels?
too much water is absorbed causing constipation
What does the rectum store?
Where does lipid digestion begin?
small intestine