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26 Cards in this Set

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aneuploidy
A chromosomal aberration in which one or more chromosomes are present in extra copies or are deficient in number
Barr body
A dense object lying along the inside of the nuclear envelope in female mammalian cells, representing an inactivated X chromosome.
chromosome theory of inheritance
A basic principle in biology stating that genes are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritance patterns. (segragation and independent assortment
crossing over
The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during prophase I of meiosis.
cytologenetic map
Chart of a chromosome that locates genes with respect to chromosomal features.
deletion
1) A deficiency in a chromosome resulting from the loss of a fragment through breakage. (2) A mutational loss of one or more nucleotide pairs from a gene.
Down syndrome
A human genetic disease caused by presence of an extra chromosome 21; characterized by mental retardation and heart and respiratory defects.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele; characterized by progressive weakening and a loss of muscle tissue.
duplication
An aberration in chromosome structure due to fusion with a fragment from a homologous chromosome, such that a portion of a chromosome is duplicated.
genetic map
An ordered list of genetic loci (genes or other genetic markers) along a chromosome
genetic recombination
General term for the production of offspring that combine traits of the two parents.
genomic imprinting
Phenomenon in which expression of an allele in offspring depends on whether the allele is inherited from the male or female parent.
hemophilia
A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele; characterized by excessive bleeding following injury.
inversion
An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from reattachment in a reverse orientation of a chromosomal fragment to the chromosome from which the fragment originated.
linkage map
A genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination between markers during crossing over of homologous chromosomes.
linked genes
Genes located close enough together on a chromosome to be usually inherited together.
map unit
A unit of measurement of the distance between genes. One map unit is equivalent to a 1% recombination frequency.
monosomic
Referring to a cell that has only one copy of a particular chromosome, instead of the normal two
nondisjunction
An error in meiosis or mitosis, in which both members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or both sister chromatids fail to move apart properly.
parental type
An offspring with a phenotype that matches one of the parental phenotypes.
polyploidy
A chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more than two complete chromosome sets.
recombinant
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the parents; also called recombinant type.
sex-linked gene
A gene located on a sex chromosome
translocation
(1) An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from attachment of a chromosomal fragment to a nonhomologous chromosome. (2) During protein synthesis, the third stage in the elongation cycle when the RNA carrying the growing polypeptide moves from the A site to the P site on the ribosome. (3) The transport of organic nutrients in the phloem of vascular plants.
trisomic
Referring to a cell that has three copies of a particular chromosome, instead of the normal two.
wild type
An individual with the normal (most common) phenotype.