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145 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What phylum does the ferns, whisk ferns and horsetails belong to?
What are all considered fern allies?
lycophytes, whisk ferns and horsetails
What kind of leaves do Pteridophytes have?
megaphylls-A leaf with several or many large veins branching apart or running parallel and connected by a network of smaller veins.
what type of sperm to Pteridophyta have?
What are the two orders in the Pteridophyta phylum?
Psilotales (whisk ferns) and the Equisetales (horsetails)
What kind of leaves do the Psilotales and the Equisetales have?
Psilotales-have extremely tiny leaves, and the Equisetales have reduced, microphyll-like leaves
What are the Equistales characterized by?
jointed stems, whorls of leaves, longitudinal ridges and furrows extending the length of the internodes
What are seed plants called? and what kind of plants do they include?
spermatophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms
What type of group is gynosperms?
bear naked seeds
What are the four groups of gynosperms with living representatives?
Cycadophyta- cycads
ginkgophyta- ginkgo
Gnetophyta- Gnetum
Confierophyta- conifers
What is the dominant phase for seed plants?
What are the differences between gynosperms and pteridophytes and lycophytes?
have even more greatly reduced gametophytes and completely parasitic on sporophyte and larger and more complex sporophytes
What is a seed in gynosperms? what are the three components of a seed?
a mature ovule that contains an embryo- seed coat, nutrition (gametophyte) and then the embryo
What is an immature ovule?
a megasporangium (nucellus) surrounded by one or two layers of tissue called "integuments"
What makes up the seed coat when it is mature?
How many of the megaspores becomes the megametophyte?
only 1 of the 4 megaspores goes on to become the megagametophyte
Where does the young embryo develop?
within the megagametophyte within the megasporangium
What led to the evolution of land plants?
What does "naked seeds" lack?
protection of the ovary wall
Are gynosperms homosphorous or heterosporous?
What are ovules surrounded by?
nucellus and integuments
The male cones make what and the female cones make what?
the male cones makes the pollen and the female cones make the ovules
When an ovule matures what does it become?
a seed
What is the stage that a microgametophyte is discharged from the sporangium before it is fully mature?
What is it called when pollen is carried (how?) to an area near the megagametophyte?
pollination, usually by wind
What is produced after pollination? and where are they carried and how?
sperm, via the pollen tube, produced and carried in the archegonium
Which Gynosperms are dioecious? monoecious?
cycads, Ginkgophyta, gnetophyta

How are cycads pollinated?
mostly be insects
What does monoecious mean?
male and female parts on the same plant
Which gynosperms have non-motile sperm and which gynosperms have motile sperm?
non-motile- conifers and gnetophytes- sperm are delivered directly to archegonium
motile- cycads and ginkgo
Why are the male cones low and the female cones high on monoecious plants?
to avoid self-fertilization
How does fertilization take place in plants with non-motile sperm?
the pollen tube does not pentrate the archegonium- therefore it grows in the nucellus absorbing nutrients and then the pollen grain bursts near the archegonium and the sperm swims to the archegonim
What is fertilization in gymnosperms?
one sperm nucleus unites with an egg in the archegonium
When the integuments harden what does it become?
the seed coat
Where are seeds born?
on the surface of ovulate scales
What are the names for seed plants? what groups are included in this type of plant?
spermatophytes, angiosperms and gymnosperms
Describe gymnosperms.
bears naked seeds
What are the four living representative groups of gymnosperms?
Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta,Gnetophyta, Coniferophyta
What is the dominant phase for gymnosperms?
Are seed plants heterosporous or homosporous?
heterosporous- give rise to megaspores and microspores
What is a seed?
simply a mature ovule containing an embryo
What is an ovule?
a structure in seed plants containing the female gametophyte with egg cell, all being surrounded by the nucellus and one or two integuments-when mature becomes a seed
Where is the megagametophyte located in a gymnosperm?
permanently in the sporangium
What are integuments?
hard envelopes surrounding the megasporangium
Where is the microgametophyte discharged from? and what is this stage called?
the sporangium, pollen
How is sperm transferred and where do they go?
to the archegonium, through the pollen tube
For the four groups of gymnosperms which ones have motile sperm and which ones have non-motile sperm?
non-motile sperm- Conifers and gnetophytes, motile sperm- cycads and ginkgos
For the groups with motile sperm how does the sperm get to the archegonium?
pollen tube does not pentrate archegonium, instead it grows for several months in the nucellus and bursts and the sperm swims to the archegonium
Once the integuments harden in the gymnosperms what do they become?
a seed coat
Why are gymnosperms called naked seeds?
seeds are borne on the surface of ovulate scales
How are cycads characterized?
by a columnar, usually unbranched trunk covered by persistent leaf bases and a crown of large pinnately compound leaves
Why are cycads called dioecious?
has male and female reproductive organs borne on separate individuals and produce their ovules on sporophylls, which are arranged in discreet cones
What does the microsporangiate do in cycads?
or pollen cones, have sporophylls that bear clusters of microsporangia
What is the nucellus?
the central part of a plant ovule in which the embryo develops
What is another name for nucellus?
What is the opening in the integument? what purpose does it serve?
micropyle; allows the entrance of the pollen grain into the pollen chamber
What is contained inside the nucellus?
What single species represents ginkgophyta?
Ginkgo biloba
Why is ginkgo still cultivated in many cities?
its resistance to many predatory insects, fungal pathogens and air pollutants
Are Ginkgo decidious or evergreen?
Describe the characteristics of the Ginkgo trees.
produces two branches-long shoots and spur shoots (short), leaves bilobed, petiolate and have dichotomous venation (divides in two parts)
Where are the microsporangia and the megasporangia borne on Ginkgo trees?
micro-in a loose-catskin like strobilus, mega-singly or in pairs on a stalk on female plants
Why can't you touch the seeds of Ginkgo trees?
they produce butyric acid
What kind of sperm do cycads and Ginkgos produce?
What are the three genera of Gnetophyta?
Gnetum, Welwitschia and Ephedra
What do the genera of gnetophyta resemble? and why?
flowering plants, have vessel elements in their xylem, have strobilli that appear to be more flower-like than cone like
What is unique about Welwitschia?
generally produces two leaves that get split by winds giving the appearance more than two leaves
What does confierophyta mean? how many species are alive?
means cone-bearing palnts, about 520 species which are either woody trees or shrubs
What kind of trees are included in the family Coniferophyta? are they deciduous or evergreen?
evergreen mostly, firs, spruces, hemlocks and junipers, pines
Which species of Coniferophyta are native to NA?
bald cypress and larch
What are the two types of cones?
seed cones
pollen cones
What are seed cones known are before mature?
ovulate cones (cones having ovules)
Describe pollen cones.
relatively smalla nd are borne singly or in clusters, last only a short time and often go unnoticed, frequently bright shade or red or yellow
Describe seed cones.
woody, differ in size, range from 1 in to 2 ft. may remain on trees for 1 or more yrs.
What is serotiny?
seedc ones remain closed utnil fire or heat opens the cones to release the seeds
What are arils?
fleshy coverings around the seeds
Are conifers dioecious or monoecious? describe the ovulate seeds of conifers.
some are dioecious and some are monoecious, sometimes mistaken for fruit b/c of the berrylike appearance
What led to plant evolution?
the progressive occupation of land and increasing independence from water on reproduction
Describe an aquatic habitat for plants?
all cells surrounded by or close to water
-dissolved minerals are CO2/02
-water supports weight of plants
Photosynthetic plants in water have what?
-unicellular reproductive structures
-motile gametes (including egg)
-all cells are photosynthetic
What caused a depletion of minerals in the ocean?
clustering of plants around land
-development of structures to anchor plants to rough shores
-development of food conducting tissues to reach non-photosynthetic plants
What were some issues for plants when they moved to land?
-above parts dried out
-medium was non-supportive
-water only available through soil
What were some adaptations for plants after they moved to land?
Epidermis>waxy cuticle>stomata
-Vascular tissue
-Lignin – cell walls, conduction
-Gametophyte gradually reduced in size and nutritionally dependent on sporophyte
What are the seedless vascular plant phylums?
Phylum Lycopodiophyta (lycophyte clade)
Phylum Pteridophyta (pteridophyte clade)
What are the three families that belong to the Phylum Lycopodiophyta? along with their common names.
Lycopodiaceae (club mosses)
Selaginellaceae (Selaginella)
Isoetaceae (Quillworts: Isoetes)
What are the three families that belong to the Phylum Pteridophyta?
Ferns (various families)
Horsetails (Equisetum)
Whisk ferns (Psilotum)
What is a nickname for the familiy Selaginellaceae?
resurrection plant because it can die and come back to life
In homosporous plants what kind of gametophyte do they produce? heterosporous plants?
homosporous- large, comlex gametophyte
heterosporous- smaller, simpler gametophyte
What is homospory? give some seedless vascular plant examples.
Spore produces bisexual gametophytes, but they are functionally unisexual
Gametophytes exhibit exosporic development
Living examples include whisk ferns, Equisetum, Lycopodiaceae and some ferns
What are bisexual gametophytes?
gametophytes that produce both antheridia and an archegonium
What is heterospory? give some examples and provide characteristics
Spore produces unisexual gametophytes
Microspores>microgametophytes > antheridia (sperm)
Megaspores > megagametophytes > archegonia (egg)
Gametophytes exhibit endosporic development
Gametophytes are much smaller than ones from homosporous spores
Dominant condition; found in Selaginella, Isoetes, some ferns and all seed plants
Arose independently several times
In the Phylum Lycopodiophta, how many genera and species are there and how tall can they get?
10-15 genera, about 1000 species and about 10-25 meters tall
Describe some characteristics of the Lycopodiaceae family.
evergreen, mats on forest floor,ground pine and looks like pine needles
Name where the sporangia and the sporophylls are on this pic.
sporophyll and sporangia noted on pic
What are sporophylls?
modified leaves that bear sporangia
What is a strobilus?
a cluster of sporophylls at the end of an upright stalk
label the pic where the arrow is pointing
Is the family Lycopodium homosporous or heterosporous?
Can homosporous plants self-fertilize?
What is sporophyte?
spore-producing diploid (2n) phase in a life cycle characterized by alternation of generations
What is necessary in the Lycopodiaceae family for normal growth?
mycorrhizal fungus
What is required for fertilization to take place in the Lycopodiaceae family?
water to be added for the biflagellated sperm to swim to the archegonium
What is the habitat that selaginella plants are found? what does change in the habitat do to the plant?
in vernal pools, drys it out b/c the pools aren't always there, but the plant can come back to life if the pool returns
What does Selaginella have that Lycopodiaceae doesn't?
a ligule
What is a ligule?
a scalelike outgrowth, near the base of the upper surface of each microphyll and sporophyll
What is a microphyll?
a small leaf with one vein and one leaf trace not associated with either a leaf gap or leaf trace gap- characteristic of lycophytes
Label this selaginella plant
1. strobilli
2. megasporangium
3. microsporangium
Describe the Isoetaceae family.
Nearest living relative to the tree lycophytes of the Carboniferous. Has vascular cambium producing sieve elements and tracheids. Some have CAM photosynthesis.
How many megaspores are produced in each sporangium of the Selaginella plant?
Is the Selaginella plant homosporous or heterosporous?
Describe the anatomy of the Isoetes plant.
the sporophyte is the short, fleshy underground stem bearing microphylls on its upper surfaces and roots on the lower surface, each leaf is a potential sporophyll
Is Isoetes heterosporous or homosporous?
What are some uses of lycophytes?
Fire, dragon breath!, flash photography back in the day, talcom powder, upset stomach or urinary infections
What is eusporangiate?
all homosphorous
What is leptosporangiate?
heterosporous and homosporous
Which ferns in the Pteridophyta phylum are heterosporous?
water ferns
Describe the Pteridophyta phylum.
11,000 species
2nd to angiosperms
Greatest diversity found in tropics- epiphyte ferns, vining ferns
Some are terrestrial and there are aquatic ones
Some compound or four leaf clover like pic below
Sporophyte is dominant generation
Have true leaves and roots
What are the two life cycle stages of ferns?
sporophyte and gametophyte
Name an example of a successful fern that is everywhere.
Bracken fern
What are the two different types of true ferns?
eusporangiate and leptosporangiate
Describe the method of development of the sporangia of a eusporangiate.
parent cells (located on surface of tissue)->divide and form walls->results in inner and outer series of cells->outer layer is several-layered sporangium->inner layer is where spore mother cells arise
(larger than leptosporangiate)-contain many spores, characteristic of all vvascular plants other than leptosporangiate ferns
What is the tapetum?
nutritive tissue in the sporangium
Is Ophioglassales eusporangiate or leptosporangiate?
What does a leptosporangiate come from?
a single initial cell
In a leptosporangiate what results?
the tapetum is deposited around the spores- lip cells-cracks,
annulus- a special layer of unevenly thick-walled cells
What is an annulus?
a special layer of unevenly thick walled cells in a leptosporangiate
Is Filicales homosporous or heterosporous? is it eusporangiate or leptosporangiate?
homosporous and leptosporangiate
What kind of leaf development does Filicales have? what does this mean?
circinate vernation=ring-shaped; vernation-arrangement of young leaves within the bud
What is sorus?
cluster of sporangia
What order does fiddleheads belong to?
Where can sporangia be?
-margin of leaf
Underside of leaf
On a modified leaf
On a separate stalk
What are indusia?
special outgrowths of the leaf that cover sori
What is a prothallus?
a mature gametophyte
Are Marsileales and Salviniales heterosporous or homosporous and are they leptosporangiate or eusporangiate? what kind of ferns are they/
heterosporous leptosporangiate; water ferns
Which ferns resemble a four-leaf clover?
What are sporocarps?
bean-shaped drought resistant reproductive structures which may remain viable even afer 100 yrs of dry storage- they are scarified- by a sharp object or sitting in water for a long time
What are two genera within the Salviniales order?
Salvinia and Azolla
Which ferns have cyanobacteria living within them? and what do they do there?
they fix nitrogen in the Azolla genera of the Salviniales order-live symbiotically within their cavities
What are many of the uses of ferns?
Air filters (1800 mg formaldehyde/hr)
Good medium for orchids, bromeliads, etc
Stairs on mountains
Fiddleheads: silky hairs used for upholstery, pillow and mattress stuffing
Hummingbirds use hairs and scales to line nests
Bracken ferns (worldwide)-human food. Mildly poisonous to livestock.
Cooked rhizomes and young fronds can be yummy
Lots of medicinal uses (including dandruff medication
What order are the whisk ferns? what is reduced in them?
Psilotales- reduced ferns b/c gametophytes are reduced in the sporophyta
Describe the order Equisetales.
horsetails-ribbed stems, little rubbles, obvious nodes and internodes
What dominated the tropical swamps of the Carbinferous era?
giant lycophyte trees, low growing lycophytes with cones and Equisetales
What are sporangiaphores?
within the strobilus the sporangia are tucked in specialized structures in 4s
What are elaters?
thickened bands that arise from the outer layer of spore wall-coil when moist and uncoil when dry- thus playing a role in spore dispersal
What does the order Equisetales have instead of sporphylls, also what is another structure they have that aids in spore dispersal? how are their leaves and branches arranged?
sporangiophores, elaters, arranged in whorls