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130 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
DIFFUSION
IONS/MOLECULES TEND TO MOVE TO A PLACE WHERE TEHY ARE NOT AS CONCENTRATED
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
PUMP SUBSTANCES AGAINST DIRECTION IN WHICH CONCENTRATION GRADIENT WOULD TAKE THEM
HABITAT
PLACE WHRE INDIVIDUALS OF A SPECIES NORMALLY LIVE
ANATOMY
STUDY OF AN ORGANISM'S FORM
PHYSIOLOGY
STUDY OF HOW BODY FUNCTIONS
HOMEOSTASIS
STATE IN WHICH THE BODY'S INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT IS KEPT WITHIN A RANGE THAT ITS CELLS CAN TOLERATE
WHAT ARE IN CHARGE OF HOMEOSTASIS?
SENSORY RECEPTORS, INTEGRATORS, AND EFFECTORS
STATE IN ORDER THOSE WHO ARE IN CHARGE OF HOMEOSTASIS
RECEPTOR, INTEGRATOR, EFFECTOR
RECEPTOR
DETECT STIMULI
INTEGRATOR
RECIEVE/PROCESS INFORMATION ABOUT STIMULI
EFFECTOR
CARRY OUT RESPONSES TO THE STIMULATION
WHAT DO FEEDBACK MECHANISMS DO?
HELP CONTRL WHAT GOES ON IN THE CELLS
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK MECHANISMS
RESPONSE REVERSES THE CHANGE IF A CONDITION CHANGES PAST A CERTAIN POINT
POSITIVE FEEDBACK MECHANISM
INTENSIFY CHANGES FROM AN ORIGINAL CONDITION, WHICH EVENTUALLY REVERSES THE CHANGE
LIST IN ORDER THE LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
CELLS, TISSUES, ORGANS, ORGAN SYSTEMS
TISSUES
MADE OF CELLS THAT INTERACT IN ONE OR MORE TASKS
ORGANS
MAKE OF ATLEAST TWO TISSUES
ORGAN SYSTEM
MADE OF TWO OR MORE ORGANS
GROWTH
INCREASE IN NUMBER, SIZE, VOLUME OF CELLS
DEVELOPMENT
SERIES OF STAGES IN WHIHC TISSUES, ORGANS, AND ORGAN SYSTEMS FORM
INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
BODY FLUIDS NOT INSIDE CELLS
WHAT ARE THE FOUR TYPES OF TISSUES?
EPITHELIAL, MUSCLE, CONNECTIVE, NERVOUS
WHAT IS THE FLUIDS CALLED THAT BATHS THE CELL ON THE INSIDE AND ON THE OUTSIDE?
INSIDE -- CYTOPLASM
OUTSIDE -- EXTRACELLULAR FLUID
WHAT IS INCLUDED IN THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM?
HEART, ARTERIES AND OTER VESSELS THAT TRANSPORT BLOOD
EPITHELIUM
SHEETLIKE TISSUE OF CELLS THAT ARE CLOSE TOGETHER, WITH LITLE EXTRACELLULAR MATERIAL BETWEEN THEM
HOW MANY LAYER OF CELLS DOES SIMPLE EPITHELIUM HAVE?
ONE
WHAT ARE THE THREE GROUPS OF SIMPLE EPITHELIUM?
SQUAMOUS, CUBOIDAL, AND COLUMNAR
SQUAMOUS
SINGLE LAYER OF FLATTENED CELLS
LINE HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS
ALLOW SUBSTANCES TO FLOW EASILY OVER THEM
CUBOIDAL
SINGLE LAYER OF SQARISH CELLS
LINE DUCTS OF GLANDS AND KIDNEYS
SECRETION AND ABSORPTION
COLUMNAR
SINGLE LAYER OF TALL CELLS
LINE GLANDS, BRONCHI, UTERUS
SECRETION AND ABSORPTION
STRATIFIED EPITHELIUM
TWO OR MORE LAYERS THICK
PROTECTION FOR SKIN AND REPRODUCTIVE TRACT
CARTILAGE
FINE COLLAGEN FIBERS PACKED IN RUBBERY, NON-COMPRESSIBLE MATRIX
NO BLOOD CELLS -- DIFFUSION
BONE TISSUE
HARDENED CONNECTIVE TISSUE WITH LIVING CELLS IN MINERAL SECRETION
ADIPOSE TISSUE
ENERGY RESERVOIR, INSULATION
LITTLE SECRETIONS BUT MANY BLOOD VESSELS
BLOOD
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
SERVES AS TRANSPORT MEDIUM
CONTAINS RED AND WHITE BLOOD CELLS, AND PLATLETS DISPERSED IN PLASMA
WHATARE MAOR FUNCTIONS OF NERVOUS TISSSUE?
DETECT STIMULI, INTEGRATE INFORMATION, RELAY COMMANDS FOR RESPONSE
WHATARE TWO MAIN COMPONENTS OF NERVOUS TISSUE?
NEURONS AND NEUROGLIAL CELLS
NEURONS
EXCITABLE CELLS
WHAT ARE TYPES OF NEURONS?
SENSORY, INTERNEURONS, MOTOR
SENSORY NEURONS
DETECT CERTAIN STIMULI
INTERNEURONS
NEURONS IN BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD
MOTOR NEURONS
PROTECT AND SUPPORT NEURONS
ECTODERM
SKIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM
MESODERM
MUSCLES, BONES, CIRCULATORY SYSTEM, URINARY SYSTEM, AND REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
ENDODERM
LINING OF DIGESTIVE TRACT, LIVER, PANCREAS
WHAT ARE TWO MAJOR SYSTEMS OF NERVOUS SYSTEM?
CNS AND PNS
WHAT IS INCLUDED IN CNS?
BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD
WHAT IS INCLUDED IN THE PNS?
INPUT AND OUT SIGNALS, RECEPTORS, AND EFFECTORS
WHAT IS THE FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS TISSUE?
FOR RELAYING COMMANDS, DETECTING STIMULI, AND INTEGRATING STIMULI
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF NEURONS?
COMMUNICATION, MONITORING INFORMATION, ISSUING COMMANDS
WHAT IS THE OVERALL DIRECTION IN WHICH NEUROLOGICAL SIGNALS FLOW IN A NEURON?
ENTER THE ENDS OF THE DENDRITES, THROUGH THE CELL BODY, DOWN THE AXON, AND OUT OF THE ENDINGS OF THE AXON IN THE FORM OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS
WHEN AN ACTION POTENTIAL IS AT REST, WHAT ARE THE LEVELS OF Na+ AND K+ LIKE?
K+ HIGHER INSIDE THAN OUTSIDE
Na+ HIGHER OUTSIDE THAN INSIDE
WHAT IS ACTION POTENTIAL?
BRIEF REVERSAL OF THE Na+ AND K+ LEVELS DUE TO STIMULATION OF POSITIVE CHARGES THAT ARE FROM THE NEUROLOGICAL SIGNALS
OVERALL WHAT DO Na+/K+ PUMPS DO IN A NEURON?
MAINTAIN ION GRADIENTS AND RESTORE GRADIENT AFTER THEY ARE REVERSED DURING AN ACTION POTENTIAL
DEPOLARIZATION
THE REVERSAL OF Na+ AND K+ LEVELS THAT OCCURS IN THE AXON DURING ACTION POTENTIAL
REPOLARIZATION
THE PROCESS OF RETURNING THE LEVELS OF Na+ AND K+ LEVELS TO THEIR ORIGINAL LEVELS
WHERE IS THE SYNAPSE LOCATED AND WHAT IS IT?
GAP BETWEEN TERMINAL ENDING OF THE AXON OF ONE NEURON AND INPUT ZONE OF ANOTHER NEURON/CELL
WHAT OCCURS IN THE SYNAPSE?
ACTION POTENTIAL CAUSES VOLTAGE-GATED Ca+ CHANNELS TO OPEN, WHICH CAUSES FLOW OF Ca+ INTO PRESYNAPTIC CELL, WHICH CAUSES RELEASE OF A NEUROTRANSMITTER
HOW IS THE NEUROTRANSMITTER ACCEPTED INTO THE MEMBRANE OF THE POSTSYNAPTIC CELL?
RECEPTOR FOR NEUROTRANSMITTER BINDS TO THE CHANNEL PROTEIN AND IONS FLOW DOWN THE CHANNEL'S TUNNEL, OPENING THE CHANNEL PROTEIN FOR NEUROTRAN-SMITTER TO ENTER THE CELL
WHAT IS A NEUROMUSCLAR JUNCTION?
A CHEMICAL SYNAPSE BETWEEN A MOTOR NEURON AND A SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBER
WHAT IS THE NEUROTRANSMITTER USED IN NEUROMUSCLAR JUNCTION?
ACETYLCHOLINE (ACh)
DOPAMINE
A NEUROTRANSMITTER MADE FROM TYROSINE
USED FOR FINE MOTOR CONTROLS
IF DESTROYED --> PARKINSON'S
SEROTONIN
A NEUROTRANSMITTER MADE FROM TRYPTOPHAN
AFFECTS MOOD, MEMORY, HUNGER
LOW LEVELS --> DEPRESSION
WHAT NEUROTRANSMITTER IS ECSTACY USED FOR AND WHAT ARE ITS EFFECTS?
RELEASES MASSIVE AMOUNTS OF SEROTONIN
SEROTONIN LEVELS FALL, WHICH LEADS TO DEPRESSION
WHAT'S FUNCTION OF NEUROLOGIA?
TO ASSIST, SUPPORT, & PROTECT NEURONS
WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF NEUROGLIA IN THE CNS?
OLIGODENDROCYTES, ASTROCYTES, AND MICROGLIA
OLIGODENDROCYTES
MAKE MYELIN (INSULATE AXONS)
ASTROCYTES
FEED BRAIN ENERGY (LACTATE)
MOST ABUNDENT CELL IN BRAIN
MICROGLIA
ENGULF DEAD/DYING BRAIN TISSUE
WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF CELLS IN THE PNS?
SCHWANN CELLS
SCHWANN CELLS
MAKE MYELIN (INSULATED AXONS)
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (MS)
NERVE FIBERS LOOSE MYELIN THROUGH WHITE BLOOD CELLS WRONGLY IDENTIFYING THEM AND DESTROYING THE MYELIN
CAUSES INFLAMMATION OF AXONS
IS A NERVE A CELLS?
NO
WHAT IS A NERVE?
A GROUP OF NEURONS AND OTHER SUPPORTING CELLS THAT SERVE AS CABLES BETWEEN BODY REGIONS
HOW MANY SPINAL NERVES ARE IN THE PNS? HOW MANY CRANIAL NERVES ARE IN THE PNS?
SPINAL --> 31
CRANIAL --> 12
WHAT ARE THE TWO KINDS OF NERVES OF PNS?
SOMATIC AND AUTONOMIC
WHAT IS FUNCTION OF SOMATIC NERVES?
RELAY INFORMATION TO AND FROM RECEPTORS AND SKELETAL MUSCLES
WHAT IS FUNCTION OF AUTONOMIC NERVES?
RELAY INFROMATION TO AND FROM THE INTERNAL ORGANS
WHAT ARE THE TWO TYPES OF AUTONOMIC NERVES AND WHAT IS THEIR FUNCTION?
SYMPATHETIC -> STRESS
PARASYMPATHETIC -> RELAXATION
WHERE ARE THE SYMPATHETIC NERVES LOCATED?
MIDDLE PART OF THE SPINAL CORD
WHERE ARE THE PARASYMPATHETIC NERVES LOCATED?
BRAIN AND VERY END OF THE SPINAL CORD
WHERE ARE THE SYMPATHETIC NERVES LOCATED?
MIDDLE PART OF THE SPINAL CORD
WHERE ARE THE SYMPATHETIC NERVES LOCATED?
MIDDLE PART OF THE SPINAL CORD
WHAT ARE THE THREE DIVISIONS OF THE BRAIN?
HINDBRAIN, MIDBRAIN, FOREBRAIN
WHERE ARE THE PARASYMPATHETIC NERVES LOCATED?
BRAIN AND VERY END OF THE SPINAL CORD
WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF THE HINDBRAIN?
MEDULLA OBLONGATA(M.O), PONS, AND CEREBELLUM
WHERE ARE THE PARASYMPATHETIC NERVES LOCATED?
BRAIN AND VERY END OF THE SPINAL CORD
WHAT ARE THE THREE DIVISIONS OF THE BRAIN?
HINDBRAIN, MIDBRAIN, FOREBRAIN
WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF THE FOREBRAIN?
CEREBRUM, HYPOTHALAMUS, AND THE THALAMUS
WHAT ARE THE THREE DIVISIONS OF THE BRAIN?
HINDBRAIN, MIDBRAIN, FOREBRAIN
WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF THE HINDBRAIN?
MEDULLA OBLONGATA(M.O), PONS, AND CEREBELLUM
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA?
CONTROLS THE BASIC RESPONSES NECESSARY TO MAINTAIN LIFE
(BREATHING, CIRCULATION)
WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF THE HINDBRAIN?
MEDULLA OBLONGATA(M.O), PONS, AND CEREBELLUM
WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF THE FOREBRAIN?
CEREBRUM, HYPOTHALAMUS, AND THE THALAMUS
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA?
CONTROLS THE BASIC RESPONSES NECESSARY TO MAINTAIN LIFE
(BREATHING, CIRCULATION)
WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF THE FOREBRAIN?
CEREBRUM, HYPOTHALAMUS, AND THE THALAMUS
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE CEREBELLUM?
CONTROLS OVER MOTOR SKILLS AND POSTURE
GETS INPUT FROM EYES, EARS, MUSCLE SPINDLES, FOREBRAIN
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE CEREBELLUM?
CONTROLS OVER MOTOR SKILLS AND POSTURE
GETS INPUT FROM EYES, EARS, MUSCLE SPINDLES, FOREBRAIN
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA?
CONTROLS THE BASIC RESPONSES NECESSARY TO MAINTAIN LIFE
(BREATHING, CIRCULATION)
WHAT IS FUNCTION OF THE PONS?
CONTROLS SIGNAL FLOW BETWEEN CEREBELLUM AND FOREBRAIN?
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE CEREBELLUM?
CONTROLS OVER MOTOR SKILLS AND POSTURE
GETS INPUT FROM EYES, EARS, MUSCLE SPINDLES, FOREBRAIN
WHAT IS FUNCTION OF THE PONS?
CONTROLS SIGNAL FLOW BETWEEN CEREBELLUM AND FOREBRAIN?
WHAT IS THE LARGEST PART OF THE BRAIN?
FOREBRAIN
WHAT IS THE LARGEST PART OF THE BRAIN?
FOREBRAIN
WHAT IS FUNCTION OF THE PONS?
CONTROLS SIGNAL FLOW BETWEEN CEREBELLUM AND FOREBRAIN?
WHAT IS THE LARGEST PART OF THE BRAIN?
FOREBRAIN
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE CEREBRUM?
THOUGHT AND INTELLIGENCE
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE CEREBRUM?
THOUGHT AND INTELLIGENCE
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE CEREBRUM?
THOUGHT AND INTELLIGENCE
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE THALAMUS?
SORTING SENSORY INPUT & RELAY-ING INFORMATION TO CEREBRUM
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE THALAMUS?
SORTING SENSORY INPUT & RELAY-ING INFORMATION TO CEREBRUM
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS?
HOMEOSTASIS CONTROL
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE THALAMUS?
SORTING SENSORY INPUT & RELAY-ING INFORMATION TO CEREBRUM
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS?
HOMEOSTASIS CONTROL
WHAT HAPPENS TO THE NEURONS IN AN ALZHEIMER'S PATIENT?
THE NEURONS IN CEREBRUM START TO DIE (LESS CONNECTIONS)
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS?
HOMEOSTASIS CONTROL
WHAT HAPPENS TO THE NEURONS IN AN ALZHEIMER'S PATIENT?
THE NEURONS IN CEREBRUM START TO DIE (LESS CONNECTIONS)
WHAT HAPPENS TO THE NEURONS IN AN ALZHEIMER'S PATIENT?
THE NEURONS IN CEREBRUM START TO DIE (LESS CONNECTIONS)
WHAT ARE SENSORY RECEPTORS?
CELLS THAT CONVERT STIMULUS INTO ACTION POTENTIALS OF SENSORY NEURONS
WHAT ARE TYPES OF STIMULUS IN SENSORY RECEPTORS?
CHEMICALS, LIGHT, PRESSURE, MOVEMENT, TEMPERATURE, PAIN, DAMAGE
WHAT ARE TYPES OF RECEPTORS IN SENSORY RECEPTORS?
CHEMORECEPTORS, PHOTORECEPTORS, MECHANORECEPTORS, THERMORECEPTORS, AND PAIN RECEPTORS
WHAT ARE MECHANORECEPTORS?
RECEPTORS THAT RECOGNIZE MOVEMENT OR MECHANICAL ENERGY
WHAT ARE THE TWO GROUPS OF SENSORY SYSTEMS?
SOMATIC SENSATIONS AND SPECIAL SENSES
WHAT SENSATIONS ARE INCLUDED IN THE SOMATIC SENSATIONS?
TOUCH, PRESSSURE, POSITION, PAIN, MOTION, TEMPERATURE
WHAT KINDS OF RECEPTORS ARE IN ACTION IN SOMATIC SENSATIONS?
MECHANORECEPTORS, PAIN RECEPTORS, THERMORECEPTORS
TO WHAT PART OF THE BRAIN ARE THE SOMATIC SENSATIONS CONNECTED?
SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX
WHAT IS PAIN?
INJURED CELLS RELEASING CHEMICALS THAT ACTIVATE PAIN RECEPTORS
WHAT ARE SOME PAIN RECEPTORS THAT ARE USED IN PAIN?
BRADYKININS, HISTAMINE, PROSTOGLANDINS
WHAT IS REFERRED PAIN?
STRESS FROM THE INTERNAL ORGANS
PAIN PROJECTED TO PAIN RECEPTORS ON SKIN
WHAT ARE THE SPECIAL SENSES?
TASTE, SMELL, BALANCE, HEARING, VISION