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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Upper chambers,less muscular
lower chambers, more muscular
AV valves
tricuspid and bicuspid (mitral)
Semilunar valves
pulmonary and aortic
Deoxygenated blood from superior/inferior vena cava goes to
right atrium
From right atrium blood flows through_valve to _
tricuspid valve, right ventricle
Right ventricle pumps blood through _ to _
pulmonary artery to lungs
What happens to blood in lungs
exchanges CO2 for O2
Oxygenated blood travels through _ to _
pulmonary veins to left atrium
From left atrium blood is pumped through_ to _
mitral valve to left ventricle
From left ventricle blood goes through _ to _
aortic valve to systemic circulation
What initiates action potential in the heart?
SA node
Sequence of excitation
SA node --> Av node-->bundle of HIS--> bundle branches--> Purkinje fibers
Av node
delays impulse
heart is stimulated by _
sympathetic nervous system
Heart is inhibited by _
parasympathetic system
heart sounds are caused by _
cosing of valves
First sound
closure of AV valve, beginning of systole
Second sound
closure of SL valves, beginning of diastole
contraction of heart muscle, ventricles contract, pressure closes AV valve, atria relax, SL valves open
relaxation of heart muscle, ventricles relax, SL valves open
Cardiac output
amount of blood pumped by ventricles in one min
CO = heart rate* stroke volume
Heart rate
# of heart beats per min
Stroke volume
amount of blood pumped out of ventricles with each beat
Is cardiac output larger in left or right ventricle?
Frank Starling mechanism
if the heart muscle is stretched it contracts more forcefully
plasma + cells
54 %, liquid with ions, proteins, water, sugars, amino acids, hormones
Blood cells
RBC, WBC, clotting
neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils,
carry oxygen binding hemoglobin, dont have nucleus
stimulates production of RBCs
RBCs are destroyed in
Higher oxygen affinity
Decreased blood pH, increased O2
Higher CO2 affinity
increased blood pH, decreased O2
Innate immunity
recognize classes of pathogens, not specific organism (skin, stomach HCl, complement)
B cells
produce antibodies that bind to pathogens and disable them or flag them for destruction by inate immunity
T cells
kill infected cells, have unique surface molecule - TCR - T cell receptor
Immunoglobulin (Ig)
on surface of B cells, light hains and hevay chains joined by disulfide bonds
20 proteins circulating in blood in inactive form
found on surface of every cell
only on antigen presenting cells