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37 Cards in this Set

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True-breeding
If they were allowed to self-pollinate they would produce off-spring identical to themselves
Hybrids
The offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
Genes
Chemical factors that determine traits
alleles
Different forms of a gene
Principal of dominance
States that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive
Segregation
Seperation of alleles
Gametes
Formation of sex cells
Green key
When each F1 plant flowers, the two alleles are segregated from each other so that each gamete carries only a single copy of each gene. Therefore, each F1 plant produces 2 types of gametes-those with the allele for tallness and those with the allele for shortness
Probability
The likelihood that a particular event will occur
Green Key 2
The principles of probability can be used to predict the outcomes of genetic crosses.
Punnett Square
The gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross can be determined by drawing a diagram known as a...
Homozygous
Two identical alleles for traits TT or tt...purebred
Heterozygous
Two different alleles for the same trait Tt..hybrid
Phenotype
Physical characteristics of the children
Genotype
Genetic makeup of offspring
Genotype
Genetic makeup of offspring
Genotype
Genetic make up of offspring
Independant Assortment
Alleles segregate seperatly for each trait
Green Key independant assortment
The principle of independant assortment states that genes for different traits can segregate independantly during the formation of gametes
Multiple alleles
Genes with more than two alleles...not dominant or recessive
Incomplete dominance
One allele is not completely dominantover the other...heterozygous phenotype is somewhere in between the two homozygous phenotypes
Codominance
Both alleles contribute to the phenotype of the organism
Polygenic Traits
Controlled by two or more genes.."having many genes"
Homologous
Each of the four chromosomes that came from the male parent has a corresponding chromosome from the female parent..these two sets
Diploid
two sets..contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
Haploid
Contain only single set of chromosomes, single set genes "one set"
Meiosis
A process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the seperation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
Tetrad
contains 4 chromatid...Each chromosome pairs with its corresponding homologous chromosome to form a ...(meiosis)
Crossing-Over
May exchange portions of chromatids in..
Mitosis
Results in the production of two genetically identical diploid cells, whereas meiosis produces four genetically different haploid cells
Gene Map
Shows the relative locations of each known gene on one of the chromosomes
Different forms of genes are called?
Alleles
If a homozygous tall pea plant and a homozygous short pea plant are crossed,
the recessive trait dissapers until the next generation
A punnett square is used to determine the
probable outcome of a cross
Organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait are said to be..
homozygous- dominant
The physical characteristics of an organism are its ..
Phenotype
A situation in which a gene has more than two alleles is known as...
Multiple alleles