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119 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
hydrophobic
-doesn't like water
phospholipid
-phosphate (PO4) and fat(lipid)
-make up cell membrane
-hydrophobic and hydrophilic ends
2 main parts in cell
-nucleus
-cytoplasm
prokaryote
-before the nucleus
-simple cells; evolved first
-don't have a nucleus or internal membrane
-everything is loose in cytoplasm
-eg. bacterium
nuclear membrane
-control gate of the nucleus
Rough ER
-covered with ribosomes
-internal transport tube for proteins
vacuoles
-storage containers for fats or oils
nucleus
-"control tower" of the cell
nucleolus
-forms ribosomes
-located inside nucleus
cell membrane
-"control gate" for entire cell
nucleoplasm
-jellylike fluid inside the nucleus
cytoplasm
-jelly-like fluid outside the nucleus
-medium of transportation
mitochondrion
-sometimes called the "power house" of the cell
-releases energy
the cell theory
-all organisms are composed of one or more cell
-all cells come from other or pre-existing cells
the cell
-humans have 5 trillion cells (5,000,000,000,000)
-basic unit of structure and function
golgi apparatus
-organizes and stores secretion, such as hormones
endoplasmic reticulum(ER)
-internal transport tubes
ribosomes
-protein-synthesis occurs
-can be in other places than on the rough ER
smooth ER
-no ribosomes
-internal transport tubes for fats
-fat-synthesis occurs
eukaryote
-true nucleus
-complex cells
-evolved from prokaryotes around 1.5 billion years ago
-have many organelles made of or surrounded by membranes
-eg. of organelles: nucleus, golgi apparatus, smooth ER, rough ER, lysosomes, vacuoles, mitochondria, chloroplast
genes
-the amount of DNA that codes for one protein
-1 gene=1 protein
-"blueprint" of life
-humans have around 100,000 genes and that means that humans also have around 100,000 proteins
chromatin material
-active form of chromosomes
-it is invisible to all microscopes because it is so stretched out
-contains genes
anton van leeuwenhoek
-from holland (dutch)
-"father of the microscope"
-1650
robert hooke
-from britain (british)
-came up with the word "cell"
-1635
rudolf virchow
-from germany (german)
-discovered that all cells come from other cells
-1800's
mathias schleiden
-from germany (german)
-discovered that all plants are made of cells
theodor schwann
-from germany (german)
-discovered that all animals are made of cells
-1800's
felix dujardin
-from france (french)
-came up with the word protoplasm
-1800's
nutrition
-a cell getting nutrients being brought into it
-eg. proteins, carbohydrates, lipids
growth (assimilation)
-the cell making more of its compounds making the cell bigger and bigger and bigger until the cell must divide
response (irritability)
-a reaction to a stimulus which happens outside a cell
secretion
-the release of very important compounds such as enzymes or hormones
absorption
-molecules moving in through the membrane
excretion
-the removal of waste products
respiration
-oxygen coming in, reacts with sugars and produces energy
digestion
-breaking large compounds into smaller ones using hydrolysis
biosynthesis
-the making of compounds by hooking them together through dehydration synthesis
reproduction
-a cell making another cell
bacterium
.








.
microtubules
-cytoskeleton
-extremely small tubes which give support to the cytoplasm
-used in movement
microfilaments
-cytoskeleton
-tiny strands that are used in cytoplasmic movement
centrioles
-only found in animal cells
-stick-like structures that function during cell reproduction (mitosis and cell division)
lysosomes
-small containers that contain digestive enzymes
-when released cause cell death
-only found in animal cells
atrophy
-losing cells
cell wall
-only found in plant cells
-made of cellulose
-is there for support of the cell
central vacuole
-only found in plant cells
-fills with water
-storage
-gives more support to the cell
plastids
-only found in plant cells
-special containers
-eg. chloroplast, chromoplast, leucoplast
chloroplast
-only found in plant cells
-green (chlorophyll)
-photosynthesis occurs
chromoplast
-only found in plant cells
-accessory pigments for chlorophyll
leucoplast
-only found in plant cells
-store starches
cellular levels of organization
-colonial
-unicellular
-multicellular
unicellular
-one cell
-eg. SOME bacteria, SOME algae, ALL protozoans
colonial (colony)
-an organism with a group of cells that are clusters of cells
-non-specialized
-eg. SOME bacteria, SOME algae
multicellular
-many cells
-specialized
-eg. all animals, all plants, all fungi
cell specialization
-specialized to do one function
division of labor
-takes all the different jobs of an organism and divides them into the cells
interdependency
-each of the specialized cells depend on the other cells
cells
-hundred to trillions of cells
tissue
-similar cells that all have the same functions
epithelial tissue
-a type of animal tissue
-usually found as a cover on an organ; outside and inside
-covering tissue
-for protection
-eg. outer layer of skin, mucous
mucous
-the secretion
mucous membrane
-lining of the gastro-intestinal tract
-lining of respiratory system
-lubricant
-enzymes; kill bacteria
muscle tissue
-type of animal tissue
-causes movement
-eg. striated (skeletal), smooth, and cardiac
striated (skeletal) muscle
-type of muscle tissue
-multi-nucleated
-has stripes on it
-attached to bones
-voluntary
smooth muscle
-type of muscle tissue
-involuntary
-one nucleus
-found in digestive system
-arteries and veins
cardiac muscle
-type of muscle tissue
-involuntary
-woven together
-strongest muscle
-never stops working
-one nucleus
nerve tissue
-type of animal tissue
-we have billions of them
-conduct chemical impulses to control functions
-100m/second
connective tissue
-connects one place to another
-eg. bone, cartilage, adipose, blood, ligaments, and tendons
bone
-type of connective tissue
-for support
-protection of vital organs
-bone marrow makes blood cells
cartilage
-type of connective tissue
-provides flexible support
-smooth surface at a movable joint for articulation
adipose
-type of connective tissue
-stores fat
blood
red blood cells-oxygen
white blood cells-immune system
plasma-carries all dissolved things, mostly water
platelets-clot
ligaments
-type of connective tissue
-hold bones to bones at a joint
-like elastic-bands
tendons
-type of connective tissue
-attaches a muscle to a bone
organ
-a group of tissues that all have the same function
-eg. stomach, intestines
organ system
-a group of organs that all have one function
-eg. digestive, respiratory, nervous, circulatory, endocrine, muscular, skeletal, excretion, reproductive, immune, and integumentary
digestive
.
respiratory
-a type of organ system
-to exchange gases
-oxygen going in, CO2 going out
nervous system
-type of organ system
-controls all organ systems
circulatory system
-a type of organ system
-transports materials
endocrine system
-a type of organ system
-system of glands
-secondary control system
-chemical control (hormones)
muscular system
-a type of organ system
-helps body move
skeletal system
-a type of organ system
-supports body
-protects organs
-makes all blood parts
excretion system
-a type of organ system
-cellular waste
-eg. kidneys
reproductive system
-a type of organ system
-reproduce
immune system
-a type of organ system
-helps in fighting diseases
-bone marrow
-eg. thymus gland
integumentary system
-a type of organ system
-outer protective system
-eg. skin
organism
-a group of organs all with one function
homeostasis
-the maintaining of stable internal conditions
-maintaining a "steady state"
-this is the "battle of life" on an organism level
-if out of balance, the organism dies!
brain
-monitors blood od carctid arteries- sensitive to pH changes
-high CO2 causes H2CO3 to form which lowers blood pH
-brain sends out control messages to various organs
heart
-increase heart rate
-moves blood faster
lungs
-actual breathing muscles- rib muscles and diaphragm
-breathing rate increases
-brings in more O2
-releases more CO2, heat and moisture
skeletal muscles
-increase in activity more blood flows here
-use more O2 and more glucose in cellular respiration
-releases energy, more CO2 and heat
liver
-releases glucose (stored in glycogen)
pancreas
-releases hormones such as insulin and glycogen
-influence liver to release sugar and influences all cells in utilization of glucose
skin
-sweat: releases H2O and salts
-cools body through evaporation
kidneys
-reduce output of urine (H2O needs to be conserved)
digestive organs
-reduced blood flow
-digestive activity is reduced
pituitary glands
-releases HDH
-an indirect hormone that influences kidneys
electrolyte levels
-H2O and salts are best in muscles
selectively permeable membrane
-a membrane that keeps out some molecules but allows others to pass through
diffusion
-the process by which molecules move form an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration
equilibrium
-a state that exists when the concentration of a substance is the same throughout a space
facilitated diffusion
-a process in which substances move down their concentration gradient across the cell membrane with the assistance of carrier proteins
osmosis
-the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
osmotic pressure
-water pressure due to osmosis
isotonic solution
-a solution whose solute concentration equals that inside a cell
hypotonic solution
-a solution whose solute concentration is lower than that inside a cell
turgor pressure
-water pressure within a plant cell
cytolysis
-the bursting of a cell
hypertonic solution
-a solution whose solute concentration is higher than that inside a cell
plasmolysis
-the shrinking or wilting of a walled cell in a hypertonic environment
passive transport
-the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy
-form greater to lesser
active transport
-the movement of a substance across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient
-requires the cell to expend energy
endocytosis
-the process by which a cell surrounds and engulfs substances
pinocytosis
-a type of endocytosis in which a cell engulfs solutes or fluids
phagocytosis
-a type of endocytosis in which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells
exocytosis
-a process in which a vesicle inside a cell fuses with the membrane and releases its contents to the external environment
contractile vacuole
-an organelle in protists that expels water