Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/26

Click to flip

26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The # of valence electrons each carbon has.
4
What gives carbon the ability to form chains that are almost unlimited in length?
a carbon atom bonding to other carbon atoms
Many of the molecules in living cells are so large that they are called.....
macromolecules
What is the process called by which macromolecules are formed?
polymerization
When monomers join together, what do they form?
polymers
What are four groups of organic compounds found in living things?
carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids,
proteins
What atoms make up carbs?
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
Single sugar molecules are also called what?
monosacchrides
What are polysaccharides?
large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides
What are three categories of lipids?
fats, oils, and waxes
Many lipids are formed when a glycerol molecule combines with compounds called?
fatty acids
Each carbon atom in a lipid's fatty acid chains is joined to another carbon atom by a single bond
saturated
Contain more than one double bond
unsaturated
Monomers that make up nucleic acids are known as?
nucleotides
A nucleotide consists of what three parts?
a 5-carbon sugar atom, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
What are two kinds of nucleic acids?
ribonucleic acids and deoxyribnucleic
Proteins are polymers of molecules called
amino acids
Process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
chemical reaction
Elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
reactants
Elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction
products
What is released or absorbed whenever chemical bonds are formed?
energy
Chemists call the energy needed to get a reaction started the what?
activation energy
What is a catalyst?
a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
Proteins that act as biological catalysts are called?
enzymes
The reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions are known as what?
substrates
The binding together of an enzyme and a substrate forms what?
enzyme- substrate complex