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45 Cards in this Set

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magnification

resolution
increase in apparent size

differentiation of two closely situated objects
hematoxylin
a dye that reveals DNA/RNA distribuation based on affinity for neg. charged particles
three main methods to study cells
microscopy
autoradiography
centrifugation
autoradiography
isotopic labeling of molecules with radioactive substance to track cell structures/synthesis of proteins and DNA/RNA.
Eukaryotic cell sedimentation pattern -
ribosomes, mitochondria, lysosomes?
bottom - ribosomes

top - mito and lyso.
Prokaryotes - two types:
bacteria, cyanobacteria.

UNICELLULAR.
nucleoid region
the nuclear region in prokaryotes. not membrane-bound. contains the single molecule of circular DNA.
how many membrane-type structures in bacteria? what?
2. The cell WAll and MEMBRANE.
CYTOSOL
the simfluid medium within the cytoplasm that contains suspended organelles
Types of eukaryotic cells:
Animal
plant
fungi
protist
Cells walls are present in:
plants and fungi only
Chloroplasts are only in
plants
centrioles are only in
animals
cytoskeleton is composed of
microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate fibers.
transport proteins
membrane-spanning molecules that allow certain ions and polar molecules to pass through lipid bilayer.
cell adhesion molecules
cell recognition/adhesion.
how cell receptors signal
-pinocytosis (carry molecule into cell)

-or signal via second messenger.
nuclear pores
allow selective 2-way exchange of materials between nucleus/cytoplasm.
histones
structural proteins complexed in DNA to form chromosomes.
nucleolus - what happenes here?
dense region in nucleus where ribosomal RNA synthesis occurs.
ribosomes - what are they?
sites of protein production.

2 subunits - large/small.
secretory vesicles
secreted by the Golgi apparatus to release contents to cell exterior.
rough ER
ribosome-dotted endoplasmic reticulum.
ER's general purpose:
transpot of secretion-destined materials frmom the cell/throughout the cell.
purpose of smooth ER
lipid synthesis, detoxification of drugs/poisons.
purpose of rough ER
protein synthesis
lysosomes
organelles that contain hydrolytic enzymes for intracellular digestion.
autolysis
cell-suicide, through process of lysosomal rupturing and spilling hydrolytic enzymes to digest cellular contents.
2 most common microbodies
peroxisomes - break down macro fats, detoxify harmful compounds.

glyoxysomes - used in germinating seedlings.
which mito membrane contains proteins of ETC?
INNER mitochondrial membrane.
enzymes DO and DON'T
DO lower act. energy
DO increase reaction rate

DONT affect overall delta G
DONT change/get consumed in rxn.
cofactors
non-protein molecules that activate enzymes by:
1. Stabilizing active state.
2. Aiding in binding of substrate.
apoenzyme
an enzyme without its cofactor
holoenzyme
an enzyme with its cofactor - active
prostethic groups
cofactors tightly/covalently bound to their enzyme
Coenzymes
cofactors that are organic.
Vmax
Maximum velocity of a reaction catalyzed by an enzyme.
-Occurs when Substrate conc. is high compared to enzyme.
Michaelis constant
K2+K3/K1

Rate of ES breakdown to E + S or P divided by rate of ES formation.
How does [S] affect reaction rates?
If lower than Km, big impact on rate.
If higher than Km, not big impact; rate is approaching Vmax.
Effect of TEMP on enzyme kinetics
For every 10 C increase, rate doubles up to 37 C. Above that, the enzyme denatures.
Effect of pH on enzyme kinetics:
Optimal is 7.2

Pepsin likes acid in stomach - 2

Pancreatic enzymes like base in small intestine - 8.5
At 1/2Vmax....
Km = [S]
allosteric enzyme
multiple active sites

multiple subunits
allosteric regulators:
inhibitors

activators
action of allosteric inhibitor:

action of allosteric activator:
prevent binding of substrate to enzyme. How: stabilize the inactive form.

allow binding of substrate to enzyme.
How: stabilize the active form.