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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
character
term for a heritable feature
trait
variant of a character
true-breeding
when the plants self-pollinate, all their offspring are of the same variety
hybridization
mating or crossinf of two true-breeding parents
P generation
the true-breeding parents
F1 generation
the offspring of the P generation
F2 generation
production of the mating of the F1 generation
alleles
the alternative variations of genes
law of segregation
the separation of alleles into separate gametes
homozygous
an organism having a pair fo identical alleles for a character
heterozygous
organisms having two different alleles for a gene
phenotype
the organism's traits
genotype
an organisms genetic makeup
testcross
the breeding of a recessive homozygote with an organism of dominant phenotype but unknown genotype
monohybrids
F1 produced in such a cross
dihybrids
heterozygous for both characteristics
law of independent assortment
the independent segregation fo each pair of alleles during gamete formation
complete dominance
the phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable
codominance
the two alleles affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways
pleiotropy
the ability of a gene to affect an organism in many ways
epistasis
a gene at one locus alters the phenotypic expression of a gene at a second locus
quantitative character
ex. human skin color and height
polygenic inheritance
an additive effect fo two or more genes on a single phenotypic character
norm of reaction
the phenotypic range
multifactorial
many factors, both genetic and environmental, collectively influence phenotype
pedigree
information assembled into a family tree describing the interrelationships of parents and children across a generation
Tay-Sachs disesase
utosomal recessice; found in Jews; lipids accumulate in brain cells; fatal by age four
sickle- cell anemia
autosomal recessive; found in african americans; unbalanced hemogloban level, resulting in an insufficient oxygen level throughout the body
cystic fibrosis
autosomal recessive; found in whites; devective chloride channels, mucus builds up in organs
huntingtons disease
autosomal dominant; no typical group; common in middle age people-mild mental illness folloewd by progressional deteriation of mental and physical skils
incomplete dominance
the F1 hybrids have an appearance somewhere in between the phenotypes of the two parental varieties