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82 Cards in this Set

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Waht is the total amount of ATP produced, or gained, in cellular respiration (total)?
Glycolysis: 2 ATP
Citric Acid Cycle: 2 ATP
Electron Transport
Chain: 34 ATP

Total: 38 ATP
PYRUVIC ACID BREAKDOWN!

1. Pyruvic Acid, a _-carbon molecule, is broken down into ______ ____ group, a 2-carbon molecule.

2. the free carbon forms ___.

3. Coenzyme _ combines with ______ acid to form ______-___, a 2 carbon molecule.

4. _________ ions are formed and picked up by NAD+ to form ____ + __.
PYRUVIC ACID BREAKDOWN!

1. Pyruvic Acid, a *3*-carbon molecule, is broken down into *acetic acid* group, a 2-carbon molecule.

2. the free carbon forms *CO2*.

3. Coenzyme *A* combines with *acetic* acid to form *Acetyl-CoA*, a 2 carbon molecule.

4. *Hydrogen* ions are formed and picked up by NAD+ to form *NADH + H+*.
An ordered series of enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions that forms a product in step-by-step manner.
Biochemical pathway
Cellular Respiration takes place in 2 stages:
1. _______ is converted to _______, producing a small amount of ATP and NADH.
2. When oxygen is present, ________ and ____ are used to produce a large amount of ATP. When oxygen is ______, pyruvate is converted to lactic acid or ______ _______.
Cellular Respiration takes place in 2 stages:
1. *Glucose* is converted to *pyruvate*, producing a small amount of ATP and NADH.
2. When oxygen is present, *pyruvate* and *NADH* are used to produce a large amount of ATP. When oxygen is *absent*, pyruvate is converted to lactic acid or *ethyl alcohol*.
Options:
pyruvate, NADH, ethyl alcohol, glucose
2nd step of aerobic respiration; the beginning product and end product are both citric acid, but the process produces ATP and electrons.
Citric Acid Cycle
A series of molecules along which electrons are transferred, releasing energy. Oxygen is the last electron acceptor in the chain.
Electron Transport Chain
Anaerobic process of splitting glucose and forming 2 molecules of pyruvic acid
Glycolysis
1st step of aerobic respiration that breaks down pyruvic acid to acetyl-CoA
Pyruvic Acid Breakdown
what is the formation of ATP?
ADP+ phosphate (Pi) -> ATP
What is the breakdown of ATP to ADP?
ATP => ADP+ Phosphate (Pi) + energy
Disorder (entropy) in the universe constantly changes in a closed system; energy tends to be less stable.
the Second Law of Thermodynamics
It's a law.
reation that releases free energy
exergonic reaction
In The Cell Theory:
1. all living things are composed of .....
new cells
In the Cell Theory:
2. In ......, cells are the basic unit of function.
organisms
In the Cell Theory:
3. ..... are produced only from preexisting cells.
Cells
All cells have:
A cell membrane and cytoplasm
2 things
Who theorized that all plants are made of cells in 1838?
Schleiden
Matthias ........
Who theorized that all animals are made of cells in 1839?
Schwan
Theodore.....
Who theorized that cells come from preexisting cells in 1858?
Virchow
Rudolph
What type of cell lacks membrane-bound organelles?
Prokaryote
What type of cell has a membrane-bound organelle, which includes a nucleus?
Eukaryote
How many natural elements are found?
90
what kind of element has the same atoms, but different numbers of neutrons?
Isotope
Force that holds two atoms by shared electrons
Covalent Bond
......Bond
What is the attractive force between two ions of opposite charge of substances?
Ionic Bond
example: NaCl
Combination in which individual substances retain their own properties
Mixture
Ex: Salt Water
Mixture in which one or more substances are distributed evenly in another substance
Solution
Weak attraction of opposite charges between oxygen and hydrogen
Hydrogen bond
Any substance that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in water, pH below 7
Acid
Any substance that forms hydroxide ions (OH-) in water, pH above 7
Base
Measure of how acidic or basic a solution is
pH
Scale ranging from 0-14, pH 7 is neutral
Large molecule formed when many smaller molecules are bonded together
Polymer
What is the proportion of carbohydrates?
1:2:1
_:_:_
What is the general formula for Carbohydrates?
Cn H2n On
A Simple sugar
Monosaccharide
example: Glucose (C6 H12 O6)
a complex sugar; individual sugars linked together
Polysaccharide
example: glycogen
Long chains made of hundreds of glucose molecules
Starch
Class of organic macromolecules that don't dissolve in water (contains more H atoms than Carbohydrates)
Lipids
examples: fats, oils, wax
Fats that contain the maximum number of Carbon-Hydrogen bonds possible (broken down more easily)
Saturated Fats
Fats that contain carbon-carbon double bonds (harder to break down)
Unsaturated Fats
Lipids that act as hormones
Steroids
Third group of marcomolecules that are made of long chains of amino acids; control metabolism, make up structure of hair, skin, and muscle; function as hormones
Proteins
Protein that makes up the skin, ligaments, tendons, and bones
Collagen
Proteins that assist in the chemical processes of the body
Enzymes
A specific type of enzyme that makes a reaction happen faster, but without being used up
catalyst
The building blocks of proteins
Amino acids
20 different types
a 5 carbon sugar with a phosphate group and an organic base
Nucleotide
A long, repeating chain of nucleotides that make up DNA and RNA, which carries the genetic code.
Nucleic Acid
Sugar is either ........ or .......
Deoxyribose or ribose
what are the 4 bases for a nucleotide? (and 5th for RNA)
Adenone, Guanine, Cytosine, or Thymine (Uracil in RNA)
A-T, G-C
stores and releases energy
ATP
Boundary between cell and its external environment; controls the movement of materials that enter and exit the cell.
Plasma Membrane
....... membrane
Inflexible structire that surrounds the plasma membrane in plant cels and in some bacteria cells.
Cell Wall
This lies outside the nucleus and surrounds the organelles (clear fluid)
cytoplasm
folded membrane that forms a network of interconnected compartments inside the cell (cell's delivery system)
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
2 types: smooth, rough
Series of stacked, flattened membrane sacs that receives newly synthesized proteins and lipids from the ER and distributes them to the plasma and other organelles
Golgi Apparatrus
Sac of fluid surrounded by a membrane (stores food, enzymes, and some store waste)
Vacuole
Contains digestive enzymes that digest excess or worn our cell parts
Lysosomes
There are 2 factors that change the shape of an enzyme. They are:
Temperature and pH
Reaction that stores energy
endergonic reaction
.........reaction
Endergonic reaction that is driven by the splitting of ATP molecules
Coupled Reactions
Non-protein molecule that assists an enzyme in carrying out a reaction.
Coenzyme
organic molecule which is composed of a polar head and 2 nonpolar tails.
Phospholipid
This exists in a lipid bilayer.
double layer of phospholipids (tails pointing in, heads on outside); fluid, NOT rigid
Lipid Bilayer
random movement of molecules.
Brownian Motion
overall movement of particles from an area of high concentation to an area of low concentration.
diffusion
(due to brownian motion)
Continuous movement of particles with no overall change in concentration.
Dynamic Equilibrium
Difference in concentration of a substance across space.
concentration gradient
Net movement of H20 molecules through a membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low water concentration.
osmosis
Solution in which the concentration of solute outside is the same inside the cell.
isotonic solution
solution in which the water concentration is greater outside the cell than inside.
Hypotonic solution
Solution in which the water concentration is greater inside the cell than outside.
Hypertonic solution
Diffusion through selectively permeable pores (channel proteins)
Facilitated Diffusion
Passive Transport (no energy used or needed)
Transport proteins embedded in the membrane that transport protons in and out of the organelles in a cell.
Proton Pumps
Are used to make ATP from ADP
The process by which energy is gotten from food
Chemiosmosis
Energy stored in ATP is used to transport sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell.
Sodium-Potassium Pump
Process in which a cell surrounds and takes in materials from its environment.
Endocytosis
Process used to expel wastes from the interior to the exterior environment.
exocytosis
"Energy can't be created nor destroyed; it can only be converted."
First Law of Thermodynamics
It's a law.
Process that converts inorganic chemical energy to organic chemical energy.
Chemosynthesis
series of chemical reactions that converts energy in food to a useful form.
cellular respiration
Chemical reaction that pass electrons from one atom or molecule to another
oxidation-reduction reactions