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25 Cards in this Set

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cell
The smallest structural unit of an organism that is capable of independent functioning, consisting of one or more nuclei, cytoplasm, and various organelles, all surrounded by a semipermeable cell membrane
cell mem brane
The semipermeable membrane that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell. Also called cytomembrane, plasmalemma, plasma membrane.
surace area
the extent of a 2-dimensional surface enclosed within a boundary
non- polar molecule
smallest particle of a substance containing no polars
Hydrogen Bond
A chemical bond in which a hydrogen atom of one molecule is attracted to an electronegative atom, especially a nitrogen, oxygen, or flourine atom, usually of another molecule.
phospholipid
Any of various phosphorous-containing lipids, such as lecithin and cephalin, that are composed mainly of fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a simple organic molecule.
lipid bilayer
Any of a group of organic compounds, including the fats, oils, waxes, sterols, and triglycerides, that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents, are oily to the touch, and together with carbohydrates and proteins constitute the principal structural material of living cells with a structure, such as a film or membrane, consisting of two molecular layers
Channel
A course or pathway through which information is transmitted:
Receptor
A molecular structure or site on the surface or interior of a cell that binds with substances such as hormones, antigens, drugs, or neurotransmitters.
Marker
A physiological substance, such as human chorionic gonadotropin or alpha-fetoprotein, that when present in abnormal amounts in the serum may indicate the presence of disease, as that caused by a malignancy.
Nucleus
A large, membrane-bound, usually spherical protoplasmic structure within a living cell, containing the cell's hereditary material and controlling its metabolism, growth, and reproduction.
Eukaryote
A single-celled or multicellular organism whose cells contain a distinct membrane-bound nucleus.
Prokaryote
An organism of the kingdom Monera (or Prokaryotae), comprising the bacteria and cyanobacteria, characterized by the absence of a distinct, membrane-bound nucleus or membrane-bound organelles, and by DNA that is not organized into chromosomes.
Cytoplasm
The protoplasm outside the nucleus of a cell.
Ribosome
A minute round particle composed of RNA and protein that is found in the cytoplasm of living cells and serves as the site of assembly for polypeptides encoded by messenger RNA.
Cytosol
The fluid component of cytoplasm, excluding organelles and the insoluble, usually suspended, cytoplasmic components.
Organelle
A differentiated structure within a cell, such as a mitochondrion, vacuole, or chloroplast, that performs a specific function.
Chloroplasts
A chlorophyll-containing plastid found in algal and green plant cells.
Mitochondria
A spherical or elongated organelle in the cytoplasm of nearly all eukaryotic cells, containing genetic material and many enzymes important for cell metabolism, including those responsible for the conversion of food to usable energy.
Homeostasis
The ability or tendency of an organism or cell to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological processes.
Endoplasmic
A central, less viscous portion of the cytoplasm that is distinguishable in certain cells, especially motile cells.
Cell Wall
The rigid outermost cell layer found in plants and certain algae, bacteria, and fungi but characteristically absent from animal cells.
Vacuole
A small cavity in the cytoplasm of a cell, bound by a single membrane and containing water, food, or metabolic waste.
Reticuleur
Resembling a net in form; netlike
Endosynthesis
Two elements combining inside to form a whole element.