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9 Cards in this Set

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Purpose of Active Transport
1. It reads the electrical difference across the membrane.
2. while the pump is working that is the state of your nerve cells. = the nerve is at rest or not sending impulses.
3. to make the nerve active we have to stop the pump= a flood of the inside is positive and the outside is negative (when its working its the opp.)=the swtich is a message or an impulse.
Plant vs. Animal Diffusion
Crenation-animal cell loses water.
lysis-animal gains water.
turgor pressure- plant gains water and creates pressure.
plasmolysis- plant loses water and pressure creating space
Facilitated Diffusion
1. Aiding or helping a molecule mover through a membrane.
2. glucose is a little big for the cell so it cant go thru the membrane on its own-poors are hydrophobic. so it needs carriers.
3. carriers are part of the membrane protein-permease is the glucose carrier.
4. carriers will find glucose, carry it through, then dump it off in the cell. they will keep doing this until there is a balance.
5. thus it takes longer than diffusion.
6. the more carriers, the quicker glucose can be diffused in. Also, how much different the concentration of glucose is.
Isotonic-equal amounts of dissolved substances inside and outside solutions (solute). The rest is water
Hypertonic-more solute in the environment than in the cell.
Hypotonic-lower amount of solute in the environment
1. Random movement of individual molecules that gases grab to spread evenly
2. concentration gradiant=uneven distribution of molecules until they reach equilibrium.
2. Each molecule will move randomly with no destinction
3. the molecules try to get through the cell membrane.
4. small molecules, gases, (phobic)water(phillic; special channels) can diffuse in and out fo a cell.
5. Things move from hypertonic environments to hypotonic environments.
6. carriers are not required.
7. ATP is not broken down.
Active Transport
1. the movement of molecules from low concentration to high concentration against their will. This requires the help of carriers and the use of the cell's energy on the process. the energy is used to push or pull something through.
2nd Active Transport
1. requires carriers and the spending of atp energy molecules.
2. apehsme(nuclear dna) triphosphate
3. sodium potassium pump. when it is working there is a 3:2 exchange rate.
4. Picks up Na and it goes out, pocket changes shape, grabs K and brings it in and then to go back to normal shape the phosphate drops off b/c all the energy is used up and it goes back to normal.
5. ATP+H20-energy for AT+PO4+ADP
the atp+h20 breaks the bonds. the po4 is was is left over after detaches. adp=diphos (two left over)
Water Potential
1. Water moves from a higher WP to a lower WP.
2. WP matches the inside and outside of the cell.
3. WP= pressure potential (0 in sol.)+Osmotic potential (same as WP)
4. WP is the internal pressure that is built up in the plant cell of the cell membrane pushing up against the cell wall.
5. OP vaires with the concentration of solute molecules in a solution.
6. As you add solute, the OP gets negative. As it fills up with water against the wall, the PP increases positively (0 in solutions and animals)The WP is usually the same as the OP if it is more negative thant there is less potential.
7. WP is measured in bars.
Movement of water in and out of a cell.
As the cell gains or loses water, the cell changes shape.