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34 Cards in this Set

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molecule
Like or different atoms joined by a bond; the unit of a compound.
Distinguish between organic and inorganic chemistry
organic molecules
-always contain carbon and hydrogen
inorganic molecules
-usually don't contain carbon
-are often metals bonded to non-metals
Explain how atoms can form molecules by ionic bonding
electrons transfer from metal to non-metal and ions are formed.
What is an ion?
An atom or group of atoms of either positive or negative charge.
Explain how atoms form ions by ionic bonding.
In ionic bonding electrons are gained or lost. If electrons are lost there is a positive charge. An ionic bond is a chemical bond where ions with opposite charges are attracted to each other.
Distinguish between a single, double and triple bond.
Single bond: Atoms share only a pair of electrons.
Double bond: Atoms share two pairs of electrons.
Triple bond atoms share three pairs of electrons.
Explain the idea behind the concept of hydrogen bonding.
-is when a covalently bonded hydrogen is positive and attracted to a negatively charged atoms in order to fill their outer shells
-ions aren't formed adn overall charge is neutral
-is a polar bond
Explain how the ph scale shows the arrangment of acids and bases.
Is used to determine the acidity and basicity of a solution. It measures the hydrogen ion concentration. Any ph below 7 (0-7) is acidic and any pH above 7 (7-14) is basic.
Explain what is meant by strong acid.
Strong acid: In a strong acid dissociation is almost complete, more hydrogen atoms are released.
Define a buffer and explain it's role in maintaining the proper pH in living things.
buffer: chemical or combination of chemicals that keeps pH within normal limits. They resist pH changes because they can take up excess hydrogen or hydroxide ions. They are important for the body, as it is critical for the proper function of organs.
Explain how ring compounds are formed.
Ring compounds are formed when a hydrocarbon chain turns back on itself.
Describe the properties and behavior of a functional group such as carboxyl.
a functional group is a cluster of atoms that must always behave in a certain way. Carboxyl is a functional group -COOH can give up hydrogen and ionize to -COOH- This allows it to interact with water because while a hydrocarbon chain is hydrophobic a hydrocarbon chain with an ionized group is hydrophillic and it is polar.
Give some differences and similarities between hydrophobic and hydrophillic carbon chains.
Hydrophobic carbon chains are non polar and can't bond with water, hydrophillic carbon chains are polar and do bond with water.
Explain the connection between monomers and polymers.
Monomers are one or similar molecules that make up a polymer. A polymer is a macromolecule made up of monomers.
List the monomers for the polymer of protein, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids.
polymer monomer
carbohydrate monosaccharide
protein amino acid
nucleic acid nucleotide
Give functions and basic structure of carbohydrates.
function: short term energy storage
structural role in woody plants, bacteria and insects
structure: contains: oxygen, hydrogen and carbon in a ratio of hydrogen to oxygen 2:1
Describe the basic structure of monosaccharide.
Monosaccharide: Contain a low number of carbon atoms (from 3-7) and are simple sugars.
Triose:
Tetrose:
Pentose:
Hexose:
Common hexoses are fructose, glucose, and galactose
Disaccharide: two monosaccharides linked together such as maltose which is made up of two glucose molecules or sucrose which is made up of glucose and fructose.
What are polysaccharides? Name three types.
Polysaccharides are carbohydrates composed of many monosaccharides linked together such as (many glucose monomers form a glycogen polymer). Three kinds are: starch, glycogen, and cellulose.
Give the structure and function of starch, glycogen, and cellulose.
Starch:-has straight chain of glucose molecules, some chains are also branched
-it is the storage form of glucose in plants
Glycogen:-highly branched polymer of glucose molecules
-it is the storage form of glucose in animals
Cellulose: -has a slightly different type of linkage between glucose molecules than that in starch and glycogen.
-gives support in plant
Give the basic structure and function of lipid molecules.
Lipid: Organic compound that is not soluble in water main types include fats, oils, and steriods.
-don't dissolve in water because they don't have polar groups
-have little oxygen mainly hydrogen and carbon atoms
-provide long term energy
What are the two most common lipids?
The two most common lipids are fats and oils.
Describe the basic structure of fats and explain why they are sometimes referred to as triglycerides.
Fats are usually of animal origin and they're solid at room temperature. Sometimes called triglycerides because they are composed of three fatty acids joined to a molecule of glycerol.
Explain why fats are not soluble in water.
Not suluble in water because they don't have polar groups.
Name the two types of fatty acids and give two differences between them.
There are saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.
Saturated:-have single bonds between carbon atoms (no double bonds)
-carbon chain is saturated with all the hydrogen atoms it can hold
Unsaturated: -has double bonds between carbon atoms where the numbder of hydrogen atoms is less than two per carbon atom.
Describe the structure and function of phospholipids.
Phospholipids:-Fats which have a phosphate group attached to the glycerol molecule instead of three fatty acids
-make up the plasma membrane of cells
Explain the hydrophillic and hydrophobic nature of the plasma membrane.
The two fatty acids on the tail portion of the molecule are hydrophobic but the head portion is hydrophillic. So as a result when phospholipids are put in water they form a bilayer with the hydrophillic head portions of the molecules in the water and the hydrophobic tail part facing away from the water. This forms a boundary separating the water either side.
Give the differences and similarities between cholesterol and steroid molecules.
Both Cholesterol and steroids have a structure of four fused carbon rings. Cholesterol is part of animals plasma membrane and is a precursor to several other steroids
Describe how a diet high in saturated fats can be destructive to one's health.
Can be damaging because fatty matter can accumulate inside the lining of blood vessels and restrict blood flow.
List several functions of proteins.
Structural, transport molecules, enzymes, cell movement.
Recognize, give the causes and differences between the four levels of protein organization.
Primary structure:-straight line of amino acids
Secondary Structure:-exists in two forms; coiled or pleated sheet
-caused by hydrogen bonds between different amino acids
Tertiary structure:-occurs when there's bonding between "R" groups
-this causes a folding into a globular shape
Quartenary Structure:-two or more proteins bonding together
-forms 3D shape
Explain how the process of denaturation can alter the structure and function of a protein.
Denaturation occurs when the normal bonding between "R" groups is disturbed. The final shape is very important to a protein and when this is changed due to an exposure to extreme heat or pH. An example would be adding acid to milk, the milk curdles.
Give the difference between a purine and pyrimidine.
Purines:-have 2 carbon rings
-A=adenine G=guanine

Pyrimidines:-have 1 carbon ring
-T=thymine A=adenine
Give the similarities and differences between DNA and RNA.
Similarities: have four bases
Differences
DNA
-double stranded polymer
-has thymine
-helical structure

RNA
-single stranded polymer
-has uracil in palce of thymine
-does not form helical strucuture
-has 3 kinds: mRNA,tRNA,rRNA
Give the function of ATP.
ATP is a molecule that contains enough energy to sustain all chemical reactions in the body.