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53 Cards in this Set

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Metabolism
All chemical and energy transformation within the cell.
Homeostasis
Maintaining internal conditions of the cell.
CHON
All living organisms are composed of the same elements, and follow rules of chemistry and physics.
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
Evolution
Process in which an organism changes over time.
Adaptation
A peculiarity of form, function, structure, or behavior that promotes that species in it's environment.
Unity and Diversity of Life
We are all descended from a common ancestor and have changed through evolution to become diverse.
Emergent properties
"Holistic View" The whole of the organism is bigger that the parts.
CHNOPS
Living things are made up of chemicals; elements composed of each organism and matter of this Earth. 98%
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, sulphur
Matter
Matter occupies space and has weight.
There are 92 naturally occuring elements.
Isotopes
Atoms having the same number of protons but DIFFERENT neutrons.
Atoms
Have chemical properties; they also have electrical properties.
Ionic bonding
An actual transfer of the electron.
Covalent bond
When two atoms share electrons.
Water
*Comprises 70-90% of all living things.
*Has a high heat capacity.
*Is a universal solvent.
*Water sticks together. Is both adhesive and cohesive. (Hydrogen bonding)
*Frozen form is less dense than liquid.
*Has a high surface tension.
Carbon
Is the skeleton of organic life. It can form very strong covalent bonds. Can bond up to 4 times. Can form long chains and can also form double bonds.
CHNO
95%
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen
Saturated Fat
No double bonds. (Animal)
Unsaturated Fat
At least one double bond. (plant)
DNA
Genetic material made up of nucleotides.
Double Stranded
RNA
Genetic material made up of nucleotides.
Single stranded.
ATP
Adenosine Triphosphate
The energy currency of the cell.
Constantly being broken down, rebuilt and recycled by the cell.
Cell Theory
All cells come from a pre-existing cell.
Smallest unit of life.
Plasma Membrane
All cells have one. Separates the cell from it's environment. Regulates passage of molecules in and out of the cells.
Eukaryotic
Has a true nucleus. More complex.
Prokaryotic
Lacks a true nucleus. Most numerous of all organisms. Single chromosome.
Ribosomes
Where protein synthesis takes place.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Has ribosomes all over.
Rough E.R.: Involved with the ribosomes in proteins.
Smooth E.R.: No ribosomes, steroid manufacturer.
Nucleus
Control center of the cell.
Vacuoles
Large membranous sacs; much larger in plants. Function mostly for storage. In plants they provide and important support function.
Mitochondria
Powerhouse of the cell.
Where ATP is made, which is the energy source of the cell.
Cholorplasts
Where photosynthesis takes place.
Osmosis
Diffusion of molecules through a semi-permeable membrane.
Diffusion
Movement of molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration.
Isotonic
Water neither goes in or out, its the same concentration.
Hypotonic
Cell tends to gain water.
Hypertonic
Cell tends to lose water.
Exocytosis
Movement of materials out of a cell.
Endocytosis
Brings materials into the cell.
Energy
Ability to do work.
Law I: Thermodynamics
Energy is neither created nor destroyed; it just changes forms.
Law II: Thermodynamics
When energy is changed from one form to another, some energy is lost as heat.
Photosynthesis captures less than 2% of solar energy.
Enzymes
Key in a lock system. Speed up chemical reactions, very specific to the type of molecule. Function to bring the substrate into the cell through a "key/lock" mechanism.
3 main functions of ATP
1.) Supply energy for chemical reactions, (work)
2.) Provides transport work for moving molecules here and there.
3.) Provides mechanical work for moving and motion. (muscle movement)
Feedback Inhibition
Like a thermostat.
Gives negative feedback to stop production.
Competitive Enzyme Inhibitors
A molecule that fits the same as a substrate.
Non-Competitive Enzyme Inhibitors
Changes the enzyme structure so the substrate can't fit.
C3 plants
Cool Season Plants
Produces a 3 carbon molecule.
C4 plants
Warm Season Plants
Most efficient.
Produces a 4 carbon molecule.
CAM plants
Least efficient
Stomates open only at night; an adaptation to preserve water.
Cellular Respiration
The link that connects organisms with The energy plants capture through photosynthesis to provide usuable energy for those organisms that are not capable of making their own.
Provides 36-38 ATP.
Only 39% of original energy in glucose.
Where does cellular respiration occur?
In the mitochondria.
Results in a gain of 34-36 ATP
Catabolism
Breaking down molecules.
Anabolism
Forming molecules.