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71 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Name the Stages of Mitosis
Name the Stages of Mitosis
Describe Prophase
a.chromosome condensation
b.nucleolus disappears
a.Mitotic spindles form
b.Centrosomes migrate to opp. poles
Describe Prometaphase
1.Nucleur envelope framents/disappears
2.Kinetochore structures form
3.Spindle Fibers extend
a.Kinetochore microtubules
b.Nonkinetochore microtubules
Describe Metaphase
1.Centrosomes located at opp. poles
2.Chromosomes move toward metaphase plate
Describe Anaphase
1.Sister chromatids split,form chromosomes
2.Kinetochore microtubules shorten
3.Cell elongates
Describe Telophase
1.Further cell elongation
2.Nucleur envelope forms
3.Nucleoli reappear
4.Chromosomes decondense
What is the Outcome of Mitosis?
the equal division of one nucleus into 2 indentical nuclei
When does Cytokinesis divide and what does it divide?
Begins at telophase or after and it divides the cytoplasm
Describe 4 things of Sexual Life Cycles
1.Transfers traits from parents to offspring
2.Promotes variation
3.Genetic variation through meiosis
a.humans:only in germ/sex cells
b.reproductin of gametes/sperm/egg
containing 1/2 #chrom in
body/somatic cells
Describe Cytokinesis in Animals
a. Has actin microfilaments in Contractile Ring
b. Clearage furrow
Describe Cytokinesis in Plants
a.Golgi-derived vesicles
b.Cell plate
c.Cell wall forms
Outcome of Cytokenisis?
Results in the equal division of 1 cell into 2 identical cells
Describe chromosomes in humans
22autosomal pairs and 1 sex pair
2.Females (XX)/Males (XY), males have
one pair of chrom. that are non-
What are the factors influencing cell division?
1.essential nutrients
2.growth factors
3.density dep. inhibition
4.cell age (divides 20-50 times)
5.cell size
Somatic cells in humans?
1.contain 23pairs of chromo.
46 total, diploid
Underline theme of cell division?
1.DNA is replicated
2.DNA equally distributed
3.Cell devides
Why are there restriction points?
1.cells must pass rest.point to enter S phase
2.alternitive Go
3.Most cells in Go phase
Germ Cells in humans?
1.Germ cells(2n)-> gametes(sperm/egg)
Contains 23 chromo. haploid, n
2. Meiosis
NAme two Unicellular Organsims and describe the cycle
1.Prokaryotes:binary fission
What happens with cancer cells?
1. ignore density-dep. inhibition
2.can be immortal cells
3.lose attatchment to extracellular matrix:metastasine
What are 3 different examples of asexual reproductive strategies
1.Binary fission
2.Vegetative propagation
What does cell division lead multicellular organisms to?
1.Replacing dead dying cells
3.Germ cells:Gametes(meiosis)
What 2 Cues that control cell division?
A. Factors influencing cell division
B. Restriction points
What are 4 aspects of Asexual Reproduction?
1.Single is sole parent
2.Single parent passes all its genes to its offspring
3.Results in clone ex. potatoes
4.Takes less energy, no need for mate
How do Bacteria reproduce?
By Binary Fission
What are 5 aspects of Sexual Reproduction?
1.2 parents give for offspring
2.Passes on 1/2 its genes
3.Offspring have unique combo of genes
4.Greater genetic variation in environment due to change
Describe the process of Binary Fission.
A. Prokaryotic Chromosome Structure
B. Steps include:
1.Replication of chromosomes
attatched to p.m.
2.Cell growth separates chromosome
3.Eventually all divide in two.
What happens under Meiotic Interphase?
DNA replication
Define Genome
Total amount of genetic material found in cell
Steps of Meisosi I
1.Prophase I
2.Metaphase I
3.Anaphase I
4.Telophase I and Cytokinesis I
Define Chromatin
Complex of Dna and Histone protein
Describe Meiosis II
1.Prophase II
2.Metaphase II
3.Anaphase II
4.Telophase II and Cytokinesis II
Define Chromosomes
In humans, chromatin is divided into 46 individual strands called chromosomes
What does Meiosis I and II result in?
4 Haploid chromosomes
What is the point of chromosomes?
It is the information present in chromosomes that make us.
What are tetrads?
Complex of 4 sister chromatids
Describe 3 things of the Human Genome
1. 98.4%of human DNA is indentical to chimpanzees
2.99.9% indentical DNA in all humans
3. 0.1% or lower differences among individuals within the population.
Given an Overview of Meiosis I
Homologous pairs seperate
What are genes and where are they found?
They are small stretches of DNA that code for polypeptides found on chromosomes
Give an Overview of Meiosis II
Sister Chromatids seperate
No DNA replication between MeI adn MeII
Meisosis II is almos indentical to
Describe the Structure of a Duplicated Chromosome during cell division.
1. Has 2 sister chromatids joined by a centomere
2. Each sister chromatid contains indentical information
What is Autotrophic Nutrition?
Nutritional mode of synthesizing organiz molecules from inorganic
(are material producers: Self feed)
What is Heterotrophic Nutrition?
Acquiring organic molecules from complex compounds produced by other organisms.
What is the site of photosynthesis in plants?
In most plants which organs are sites of photosynthesis?
What cells are rich in chloroplast and what do they contain?
Mesophyll cells; cholorphyll
In Chloroplasts, what are the important locations for photsynthetic processes?
Thylakoid space; Thylakoid membrane; Stroma
What is the 1st stage in photosynthesis?
Light-dependent reaction:
H20 is oxidized to O2
and leads to synthesis ATP & NADPH
What is Stage 2 of photosynthesis?
Light-dependent reactions:
Celvin cycle:
CO2 is reduced to sugar
and this process requires ATP hydrolysis and e- from NADPH
Which rections coverts light energy into ATP and NADPH?
Light-dependent reactions
What are the 5 aspects of Light-dependent reactions?
1. Occurs in Thylakoid membrane
2. Requires light
3. Electron carrier NADP+ is reduced to
4. Gives off 02
5. Generates ATP: photphosphorylation
What does the 1st stage photosynthesis require?
What is light measured in?
Wavelengths: distance between crests of waves
What type of wavelenghts does photosynthesis use?
Only visible, violet to red
What are photosystems?
Light-harvesting complexes that gather light
Describe the structure of photosystems?
1. Antenna complex
2. Reaction Center
3. Primary electon acceptor
Describe the antenna complex.
1. Several hundred chlorophyll
Chlorophyll B and carotenoid pgmt
absorb photons of light
2. Transfer energy as vibrations energy
Describe the Reaction Center.
1. Energy is transferred to a "unique"
Chlorphyll A, located in Rxn Center.
2. ChlA in Rxn Ct. is oxidized
3. e- transferred to primary electron
Describe the primary electron acceptor.
1. Located in Rxn Center
2. Primary e- acceptor is reduced
What are the 2 types of Photosystems?
PSI: ChlA known as P700
PSII: ChlA known as P680
What are the 2 possible routes the electron can flow after capture?
1. Noncyclic electron flow (Z-scheme)
2. Cyclic electron flow
Describe the steps of the Noncyclic e- flow.
a.2 e- transferred from PSI to NADP+
and thats reduced to NADPH
b."Electronholes" in PSI are filled by
e- donated from PSII
*PSII->photosynthetic ETC-> PSI
c."Electronholes" in PSII are filled by
e-donated from H2O and O2 produced
d. H+ diffuse back into the strom via the ATP synthase complex and drives ATP syntesis:photophosphorylation
Describe the Cyclic e- flow.
a. Electrons are removed from phosys. I and enter the photosynthetic ETC
b. As e- move thru the ETC, H+ are pumped from the stroma to the thylakoid space
c. e- return to photosystem I
d. H+ diffuse back into the stroma via ATP synthase complex and drives ATP synthase: photophosphorylation
What does the Calvin Cycle do? (Light-independent rxns.)
The carbon fixation rxns that assimilate atmospheric CO2 and then reduce it to a carbohydrate
Describe 3 aspects of the Calvin Cycle?
1. Occurs in stroma
2. Require NADPH
3. Requires ATP
What are the 3 phases of Celvin cycle?
Phase 1: Carbon Fixation
Phase 2: Reduction (sugar molecules reduced)
Phase 3: Regeneration of RuBP
What is Carbon Fixation?
Process of incorporating CO2 into organic molecules such as sugar, enzyme carries (catalyzes) first step is Rubisco
What are the two main phases of the Cell Cycle?
2.Mitotic (M) phase
Describe the Interphase
1.No division
2.Has 3 subphases
a.GI (gapIphase)
b.S(synthesisphase)DNA replication
c.GII(gapIIphase)prepares for
Describe the Mitotic Phase.
1.Cell division
2.Has 2 sub-phases
a.Mitosis:DNA divided
b.Cytokinesis:Cytoplasm divides