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92 Cards in this Set

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Who named cells?
Robert Hooke
phenotypic
having to do with the set of alleles that an individual has
List the steps of the scientific method.
1)Collecting observations
2)Forming Hypothesis
3)making predictions
4)verifying predictions
5)performing control expirements
6)forming a theory
mutation that occurs when a chromosome fragment breaks off and is lost
deletion
What are the two kinds of cells?
prokaryotic:only bacteria
only DNA and plasma membrane
eukaryotic:most cells
have organelles and plasma membrane
genotypic
having to do with the set of alleles that an individual has
theory
a unifying explanation for a broad range of observations
the repeating sequence of growth and division through which many eukaryotic cells pass
the cell cycle
What are the parts of an animal cell
cell membrane, nucleus, nuclear envelope, nuclear pore, nucleolous, chromatin, nuclear sap, cytoplasm, mitichondrion, golgi complex, centriol, microtubule, lysosome, ribosome, endoplasmic reticulum
haploid
cell containing only one set of chromosomes (i.e. sex cells)
Explain the three parts to the cell theory.
1)All living things are composed of one or more cells
2)In organisms, cells are the basic units of structure and function
3)Cells are produced only from existing cells
mutation in which a chromosome fragment joins a nonhomologous chromosome
translocation
Who, in 1858, found that cells come only from other cells?
Rudolph Virchow
lipids
class of organic molecules-do not dissolve in water (used for:energy storage/structural support/specific reactants)
In 1838, who found that cells compose all plants?
Matthias Schleiden
condition in which a diploid cell has an extra chromosome
trisomy
What are the two types of nucleic acid?
DNA-deoxyribonucleic acid
(in humans)

RNA-ribonucleic acid
down syndrom
syndrome of congenital defects (mental retrdation) resulting from an additional copy of a chromosome
hypothesis
a proposed explanation that might be true
mutation in which a chromosome fragment reattaches to the original chromosome in the reverse orientation
inversion
biology
the study of life, from scientists systematically studying living things
sex chromosomes
chromosomes that differ between male and female
What are the characteristics of living things?
-composed of one or more cells
-uses energy to grow, move, and process information (metabolism)
-homeostasis
-can reproduce
-heredity
which of the following is not a stage of mitosis?
A PROPHASE
B MEIOSIS
C METAPHASE
D TELOPHASE
B MEIOSIS
What do all cells have?
a cell/plasma membrane and cytoplasm
karyotype
array of chromosomes found in one's cells arrangedin order of size and shape
genetic disorder
harmful effects produced by mutated genes (is usually a recessive gene)
The number of chromosomes found in human body cells
46
How are chloroplasts and mitochonria similar?
they both create energy for cells
binary fission
a form of asexual reproduction that produces identical offspring
Why is water important?
3/4 of earth's surface is covered by water, every cell in your body contains water, 2/3 of molecules in body are water molecules
cell that contians one homologue of each chromosome
haploid
What must a good expirement have?
one factor that you are testing
a control
diploid
cell containing two homologues of each chromosome
Eukaryotes evolved from _____?
prokaryotes
procedure for taking cells for analysis from the fluid in the sac that surrounds the fetus
amniocentesis
pH level
a number that represents the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution (on a scale of 0-14, 0-7=acidic, 7-14=base)
punnet square
a diagram used to predict the outcome of a genetic cross of a trait
homeostasis
how a living thing maintians stable internal conditions
bacteria reproduce through an asexual process called
binary fission
Who discovered that for each trait, an individual has two factors, or genes, one from each parent. The two alleles may/may not contain the same info. When they differ, the allele with the dominant info will be expressed.
Gregor Mendel
protiens
many structural functions, play vital role in metabolic activities
metabolism
sum of all chemical reactions that an organism carries out
chromosomes that are similar in shape and size and have similar genetic information
homologous chromosomes
What will the destruction of the rainforest lead to?
over a million species lost, many potential medicines and food plants gone
crossing-over
in begining of meiosis 1, the paired up chromosomes exchange reciprocal segments of DNA
Who used the term animalcules?
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
egg cells and sperm cells
gametes
cancer
a disorder of cells in which the normal controls on growth have been damaged and cells divide unchecked within the body
skipping replication
how in the process of meiosis, the 4 final cells only have 1/2 the normal amout of chromosomes
In 1839, who found that cells compose all animals?
Theodor Schwann
the 2 copies of each chromosome that are attached to each other
chromatids
control
a part of an expirement in which the key factor is not allowed to change
mutations
a change in the DNA of a gene/chromosome
How is cell size limited?
-exchange of materials between inside and outside
-disribution of materials within cell
The sex of an offspring is determined by the
male
cytoplasm
material between cell mambrane and nuclear membrane
down syndrom
syndrome of congenital defects (mental retrdation) resulting from an additional copy of a chromosome
What is the difference between a plant and animal cell?
plant cell has:central vacuoles (to store wastes) and cell walls
A rod shaped structure that forms when a single DNA molecule and its associated protiens coil tightly before cell division is called a(n)
A.HISTONE
B. GENE
C. CHROMOSOME
D. SUPERCOIL
C. CHROMOSOME
amino acids
building blocks of protiens (20 kinds for humans)
cytokinesis
a phase of a cell's life cycle in which the cytoplasm of a cell is cleaved in half and the cell membrane grows to enclose both cells
chromatin
one of a pair of strands of DNA that make up a chromosome durring meiosis/mitosis
protien disk to which 2 chromatids are attached
centromere
nucleus
organelle that houses DNA of eukaryotic cells
phenotypic
having to do with the physical appearance of an organism
nuclear envelope
double membrane that surrounds cell nucleus
The condition in which a diploid cell is missing a chromosome
monosomy
chloroplast
organelle-used to make energy from sunlight (filled with chlorophyll)
probability
the likelyhood that a specific event will occur
ribosome
organelle-makes protiens
In human sexual reproduction, a male haploid gamete and a female haploid gamete unite to form
A EGG CELL WITH 46 CHROMOSOMES
B ZYGOTE WITH 23 CHROMOSOMES
C ZYGOTE WITH 46 CHROMOSOMES
D SPERM WITH 23CHROMOSOME
C ZYGOTE WITH 46 CHROMOSOMES
nuclear sap
the cytoplasm of the nucleus
genetics
branch of biology that studies heredity
centriole
helps move chromosomes during cell division
with one exception, meiosis 2 is identical to
mitosis
golgi complex/apparatus
organelle-collects, pakages, and distributes molecules produced by cell
cells use plasma membrane for ______
homeostasis
endoplasmic reticulum
transports substances made by cell
the process of meiosis produces
4 haploid cells
microtubule
hollow protien fiber- involved in cell movement and structure
heredity
transmission of genetic traits from parent to offspring
mitochondrion
cell's powerhouse
the collection of chromosomes found in an individual's cells
karyotype
cell membrane
bilipid layer-encloses cytoplasm
diploid cell that results from the fusion of two haploid gametes
zygote
nuclear pore
one of a series of channels that span nuclear envelope- allow for transport of material between nucleus and cytoplasm
procedure for taking cells for analysis from the placenta of a mother's uterus
chronic villi sampling
lysosome
organelle-contains digestive enzymes
cell that contains 2 homologues of each chromosome
diploid
carbohydrates
composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms (ratio of 1:2:1), formula=(CHO)x, plays key role in storing and transporting energy
changes in an organism's genetic material
mutations