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95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
__ is the molecule that carries amino acids through translation.
transfer RNA
Several ppl. have carried out plant crosses before Mendel, but none are credited with being the founder of the science of genetics. What did Mendel do that was different?
He counted the numbers of different types of offsprings
A regulatory protein reponsible for the blockage of DNA transcription is called a __.
Repressor protein
Of the following crosses, which is a test cross?
a)WW*WW
b)WW*Ww
c)Ww*ww
d)Ww*W
c)Ww*ww
The ability of one gene to modify the phenotypic expression of another is called ____/
Epistasis
Of Mendel's F2 plants that showed the dominant character, what purportion was true breeding?
1/3
In the lac region of the bacterium ESCHERICHIA coli's chromosome, the repressor protein finds at the __ ___.
Operator site
A normally pigmented man mates with an albino woman. They have 3 children, one of who is an albino.What is the genotype of the father?
Aa
RNA makes proteins by___
translation
Characteristics that exhibit continuous variation are generally controlled by___.
Multiple Genes
A chemical capable of damaging DNA is called a __>
Mutagen
How many chromosomes would you expect to find in the karyotype of a person with Turners syndrome?
45
The __ is the cell site of protein synthesis.
Ribosome
The enzyme used to create cDNA from mRNA is called __.
reverse transcriptase
When two heterozyogous individuals are crossed, the percentage of the progeny that exhibits the recessive trait is_____.
25%
Which of the following is not one of the four classes of protein coating genes?
a)structual DNA
b)multi-gene families
c)tandem clusters
d)single copy genes
A)structal DNA
Transposons can jump from one chromosome to another? T or F
True
A clone library is ___
A collection of different lines of bacterial cells, each contain a plasmid carrying one series of different DNA fragments.
____ is the observation that different genes on different chromosomes segregate independently of one another in genetic crosses.
independent assortment
WHen lookin at DNA sequence, we find a stretch of DNA "start" codon ATG and continues for 900 base pairs before ending with a "stop" codon. This "coating region" is reffered to as ___.
an open reading frame.
Exons altrinate with __ on chromosomes.
Entrons
The transfer of working copies of genes from normal, healthy individuals to afflicted individuals is known as__.
himan gene therapy
According to Chargaff's rule and the Watson Crick model of DNA, if you know the base sequence of one strand is AATTCG, then the sequence of complementary strand must be___.
TTAAGC
WHy is meosis impossible in the bannanas we buy in the grocery store?
they are polyploid and have 3 sets of chromosomes
The transforming principles in the expiraments by Griffith and Avery proved to be ___.
DNA
__ is the last of the 4 stages of genetic engineering.
screening
Which of the following genetic diseases can be sex linked?
a)hemophilia
b)tay-sachs
c)statistic fibrosis
d)hypercholesterolemia
a)hemophilia
A version that is made from processed RNA is called___.
cDNA
The Hershey Chase experiment demonstrated that ______.
virus DNA injected into bacterial cells is apparently the factor involved in directing the production of new virus particles.
Domestic wheat has a genome that is 40 times larger that rice. WHat is one reason for this large difference?
Wheat resulted from the hybridization of a tetriploid with a diploid giving it many more chromosomes than rice.
If two alleles for a trait are the same, the individual is _____.
homozygous
PCR is a technique used to ___.
amplify a region of DNA
DNA makes RNA by ___
transcription
Special sequences of your eukaryotic genes called __ make the promoters of complexly control genes accessible to many regulatory proteins sumultaneously.
Enhancers
In piggy back vaccines, a plasmid contained DNA fromt he disease causeing macro and from a harmless virus is inserted into a human host. why is the human body able to form antibodies against the vaccine versus being infected with the disease?
The plamid contains the gene that codes where the microbes surface proteins that is otherwise harmless.
Erwin and Chargoff observed that the amount of adine in all DNA molecules is equal to the amount of __ and that the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of __.
thymine and cytosine
Gene microarrays can be used in all of the following ways except to
a)identify diff patterns of gene expressions
b)characterize the proteins of an organism
C)screen for copies of genes leading to diseased
d)find SNPs
B)characterize the proteins of an organism
In creating recombinant DNA , the sticky ends of sores DNA fragments are joined to the ends of __ are produced by the cutting up of a circular bacterial chromosome.
Plasmids
THe # of genes in the human genome is __ in the # of genes in Arabidopsis, the first plant genome sequences
slightly more than
In gel electrophoresis, larger DNA fragments move __ distances when an electric current is applied.
Shorter
WHen sequences of DNA differ by one base pair, this variation is called __.
single neucleotide polymorphism also known as SNPs
Microevolution is associated with __.
adaptation
Craig Ventner, the founder of a private company that set out to sequence the human genome, used in approach called __ , which does not rely on mapping genes.
shot gun sequencing
Which of the following characteristics are not adaptations that contribut to the successfull invasion of land by amphibians?
Jaws
There are about ___ genes in the human genome.
30,000
More than half of all vertebrae species are __.
bony fishes
DNA that is highly convinced, untranscribed through the cell cycle , and tends to be near the centromere for the ends of chromosome is called ___.
Structual DNA
If you came across a population of plants and discovered a suprisingly high level of homozygosity, what would you predict about their mating system?
they are predominantly self fertilizing
The statement that species are groups of interbreeing natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups is called the __.
bilogical species concept
in a cladogram of terrestrial vertebraes birds are most closely related to __ because the two groups share many dirived characters.
dinosaurs
Which type of selection acts to eliminate both extremes form an array of phenotypes?
stabalizing
What percent of the human genome is non coding DNA?
%99
THe most dramatic extinction event in the history of life on earth happened at the end of the ___period.
PERMIAN
Historically, apes occurred in North America
true or false
false
Unlike African and Asian monkeys, South AMerican monkeys have
a)color vision
b)grasping fingers
c)prehensile tails
d)no tails
c)prehensile tails
If the frequency of homozygolous recessive genotype is .01, what is the expected frequence of the dominant allele in the population?
.90
___ survived longer that any other species of human.
a) Homo habilis
b) Homo sapiens
c)Homo erectus
d)Homo neanderthalensis
c)Homo erectus
Harty-Weinberg equilibrium assumes the population size is __.
effectively infinite
Modern humans first appeard about __ years ago.
a)10 million
b)10,000
c)100,000
d)500,000
d)500,000
__ is the study of the evolutionary relationships among organisms.
systematics
One of the pivotal innovations that led to the success of reptiles in the watertight egg, called and __ egg.
amniotic
the derived character that is shared by gorrillas and humans is what?
no tail
Mammals are unique among all vertebraes because they __.
have hair.
The ancestors of the first primated were.
a)lemures
b)monkeys
c)mice
d)tree shrews
d)tree shrews
Match the organisms with the period in which it arose.
a)amphibians 1. Ordovician
b)vertebrae 2. Permain
c)dinosaurs 3. Devonian
d)flowering 4. Crestaceous
plants
a) and 3.
b) and 1.
c) and 2.
d) and 4.
The arm of a human and the fin of a porpoise are considered to be __ structures, made of the same bones, which have been modified in different size and shapes for different uses.
homologous
__ are fossil organisms that appear to be the ancestors to horseshoe crabs
Trilobites
Arrange the following animals in order of their evolutionary distance from humans, the most distant first.
a)gibbons
b)gorillas
c)prosimians
d)monkeys
e)orangutans
c, d, a, e, b
To solve the problem of fast and maneuverable swimming, sharks have a cartilaginous skeleton, while Osteichthyes have __.
Swim bladders
By studying the changing genes through time, bilogist have studied __ clocks.
molecular
What group of vertebraes do not have past of present representatives with flight?
amphibians
A fossil named__ seems to be intermediate between apes and Austalopithecus and may represent the true base of out family tree.
a)Homo hablilis
b)Ardipithecus ramidus
c)homo erectus
d)"Lucy"
b)Ardipithecus ramidus
donkeys and horses are not the same species because the hybrids they produce are _.
sterile
Which of the following characteristics were not exhibited by australopithecines?
a)the use of tools
b)bipedalism
c)large brains
d)omnivorous teeth
a)the use of tools
Which of the following invaded land first?
a)amphibians
b)arthropods
c)plants
d)dinosaurs
c)plants
Heterozygotes for the sickle cell allele have less resistance to malaria that individuals who do not have the allele? t or f?
false
Unlike the eyes of squirrels and shrews, the ewes of primated are shifted forward, giving them __ vision.
binocular
____evolution affects modern human races as much as bilogical evolution.
Cultural
Arrange the following in the order in which they are thought to have evolved, the most distant first.
a)Australopithecus
b)Cro-Magnons
c)Homo erectus
d)Homo habilis
e)Homo neanerthalensis
a, d, e, c, b
"Lucy" is the most complete fossil hominid of the genus ___.
Australopithecus
During the extinction that marked the end of the crustacious period, which of the following did not become exstinct?
a)Ammonites
b)Pterosaurs
c)Great marine reptiles
d)smaller plankton
d)smaller plankton
in constructing phylogenes, traditional taxonomists and modern cladists often __ the characters that have evolutionary signigicance.
weight
organisms within a clad share a more recent __ than the organisms outside the clad.
common ancestor
The first mammals __.
were shrew like
About __ species of organisms have been named.
1.5 million
Homo __ replaced Homo habilis.
erectus
What provides an anatomical record of macroevolution?
vestigial organs
__ is the identification of the functions of the genes in a genome, while __ is the cataloging and identification of all the proteins in an ofganisms possesses.
functional geonomics, proteomics
Humans crossed the land bridge across Siberia to North America about ___ years ago.
13,000
A group of organisms related by decent is called a __.
it's clad
List the taxonomic catagories from most inclusive to least inclusive
a) order
b)kingdom
c)species
d)phylum
e)family
f)genious
g)class
b)kingdom
d)phylum
g)class
a)order
e)family
f)genious
c)species
Evidence of macroevolution is seen in _, while _ is evidence of microevolution.
fossils, industrial melanism
To solve the problem of fast and maneuverable swimming, sharks have a cartilaginous skeleton, while Osteichthyes have __.
Swim bladders
THe oldest fossil bird, called __, had feathers and a well developed collarbone.`
Archaeopteryx
A branching tree that reflects the evolutionary relationships among organisms is called a __.
Phylogeny