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11 Cards in this Set

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What are electron carriers; specifically describe what these molecules carry.
Electrons are passed along a tykaloid membrane. Temporarily store chemical energy, such as ATP.
Ch. 4- Distinguish between concentration gradient and equilibrium.
Concentration gradient~ is the difference in a concentration across a space.
Equilibrium~ is when the concentration of a gradient is equal throughout a space.
Distinguish between endocytosis and exocytosis.
Endocytosis~ the movement of a substance into a cell by a vesicle.

Exocytosis~ the movement of a substance out of a cell by a vesicle.
Distinguish between diffusion and osmosis.
Diffusion~ movement of cells from high concentration gradient to low concentration gradient.
Osmosis is diffusion through a selectively permeable membrane.
Distinguish between passive and active transport in terms of energy, and concentration gradient.
Passive transport~ requires no energy. moves with concentration gradient.

Active transport~ requires energy, moves against a concentration gradient.
Distinguish between hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic solutions.
hypertonic~ cell shrinks because of osmosis.
hypotonic~ cell swells because of osmosis.
isotonic~ osmosis produces no difference in the cell.
How is this ATP energy released?
When the bonds that hold the phopshate together break.
Ch. 4 Describe what is meant by the "free" water molecules.
They are able to move freely around in the cell's membrane.
Compare transport proteins: facilitated diffusion, ion channels proteins, and carrier proteins.
Facilitated diffusion~ passive transport. moves cells down their concentration gradient, so requires no energy.
Ion channels proteins~ help transport ions across the cell membrane.
Carrier proteins~ a specific kind of protein that can bind to the cell membrane, carry a substance across and release it on the other side.
CH. 5~~ What is ATP?
A nucleotide with two extra energy-storing phoshate groups.
How is energy stored in the ATP molecule?
Through phosphate groups that form chains.