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38 Cards in this Set

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PROTIST
an informal term applied to any eukaryote that is not a plant,animal or fungus. Most protists are unicellular, though some are colonial or multicellular
MIXOTROPHS
an organism that is capable of both photosynthesis and heterotrophy
SECONDARY ENDOSYMBIOSIS
an processs in eukaryotic evolution in which a heterotrophic eukaryotic cell engulfed a photosynthetic eukaryotic cell, which survived in a symbiotic relationship inside the hetertrophic cell.
EXCAVATA
one of the five supergroups of eukaryotes proposed in a current hypothesis of the evolutionary history of eukaryotes. Excavates have unique cytoskeletal features, and some species have an "excavated" feeding groove on one side of the cell body
DIPLOMONAD
a protist that has a modified mitochondria, two equal-sized nuclei, and multiple flagella
PARABASILID
a protist, such as trichomonad, with modified mitochondria
EUGLENOZOAN
member of a clade of animals with true tissues; all animals except sponges and a few other groups are eumetazoans
KINETOPLASTID
a protist, such as a trypanosome, that has a single large mitochondrion that houses an organized mass of DNA
CHROMALVEOLATA
one of 5 supergroups of eukaryotes proposed in the current hypothesis of the evolutionary history of eukaryotes; chromalveolates may have originated by secondary endosymbiosis and include 2 large protist clades, the alveolates and the stramenopiles
ALVEOLATE
a protist with membrane-bounded sacs located just under the plasma membrane
DINOFLAGELLATE
member of a group of mostly unicellular photosynthetic algae with two flagella situated in perpendicular grooves in cellulose plates covering the cell
APICOMPLEXAN
a protist in a clade that includes many species that parasitize animals; some apicomplexans cause human disease
CILIATE
a type of protist that moves by means of cilia
STRAMENOPILE
a protist in which a "hairy" flagellum is paired with a shorter smooth flagellum
BROWN ALGA
a multicellular, photosynthetic protist with a characteristic brown or olive color that results from carotenoids in its plastids; most brown aglae are marine, and some have a plant like body
THALLUS
a seaweed body that is plant like, consisting of a hold fast, stipe and blades, yet lacks true roots, stems and leaves
HOLDFAST
a rootlike structure that anchors a seaweed
STIPE
a stemlike structure of a seaweed
BLADE
a leaflike structure of a seaweed that provides most of the surface area for photosynthesis
ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS
a life cyle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte and a multicellular haploid form the gametophyte; characteristic of plants and some algae
HETEROMORPHIC
referring to a condition in the life cylce of plants and certain algae in which the sporophyte and gametophyte generations differ in morphology
ISOMORPHIC
referring to alternating generations in plants and certain algae in which the sporophytes and gametophytes look alike, although they differ in morphology
OOMYCETE
a protist with flagellated cells, such as a water mold, white rust or down mildew, that acquires nutrition mainly as a decomposer or plant parasite
FORAMINIFERAN
an aquatic protist that secretes a hardened shell containing calcium and extends pseudopodia through pores in the shell
RHIZARIA
one of the 5 supergroups of eukaryotes proposed in a current hypothesis of the evolutionary history of eukaryotes; a morphologically diverse protist clade that is defined by DNA similarities
AMOEBA
a protist grade characterized by the presence of pseudopodia
PSEUDOPODIUM
a cellular extension of amoeboid cells used in moving and feeding
RADIOLARIAN
a protist, usually marine, with a shell generally made of silica and pseudopodia that radiate from the central body
ARCHEOPLATIDA
one of the 5 supergroups of eukaryotes proposed in a current hypothesis of the evolutionary history of eukaryotes. This monphyletic group, which includes red algae and land plants, descended from an ancient protist ancestor that engulfed a cyanobacterium
RED ALGA
a photosynthetic protist, named for its color, which results from a red pigment that masks the green of chlorophyll. Most read algae are multicellular and marine
GREEN ALGA
a photosynthetic protist, named for green chloroplasts that are similar in structure and pigment composition to those of land plants. Green algae are a paraphyletic group, some of whose members are more closely related to land plants than they are to other green algae.
UNIKONTA
one of the 4 supergroups of eukaryotes proposed in a current hypothesis of teh evolutionary history of eukaryotes. This clade, which is supported by studies of myosin proteins and DNA, consists of amoebozoans and opisthokonts
AMOEBOZOAN
a protist ina clade that includes many species with lobe- or tube-shaped pseudopodia
PLASMODIAL SLIME MOLD
a type of protist that has amoeboid cells, flagellated cells and a plasmodial feeding stage in its life cycle
PLASMODIUM
a single mass of cytoplasm containing many diploid nuclei that forms during the life cycle of some slime molds
CELLULAR SLIME MOLD
a type of protist that has unicellular amoeboid cells and aggregated reproductive bodies in its life cycle
OPISTHOKONT
a member of the diverse clade of Opisthokonta, organisms that descended from an ancestor with a posterior flagellum, including fungi, animals and certain protists
PRODUCER
an organism that produces organic compounds from carbon dioxide by harnessing light energy or by oxidizing inorganic chemicals