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113 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
how does an adult stem cell (ASC) differ from embryonic stem cell (ESC?
d. genes irriversibly turned off in ASC can be expressed in an ESC
which of the following cell types are genomically equvalent?.
d. marys skin cell and marys pancreatic cel
proteins that bind to DNA help regulated gene expression are called
b. transcription factors
the "slow back" to polyspermy is most directly due to...
c. formation of The fertilization envelope
a single DNA molecule corresponds to a ....
e. chromosome
which of the following is a fuction of an acrosome's enzymes during fertilization?
d. to digest the exterior jelly coat of an egg cell
the majority of genes in an organisms genome code.....
d. proteins
what can be said of the euchromatin regions of a chromosome?
c. genes in these regions can be transcribed
jimbos brain cells differ from his intestinal cells by....
d. having different genes expressed
which of the following most directly serves to establish the fast block to polyspermy?
e. egg membrane depolarization
what immediately precedes a cellular response to a signal?
d. signal transduction
the "genetic information" contained within a gene arises from its......
b. sequence of DNA
which of the following is necessary to activate a female gamete?
a. an increase of intracellular calcium ions
what effect does the amount of yolk in a macrolecithal egg have on early development?
d. gastrulation begins among a primitive streak
in a vertebrate, the pancreas develps from which embyonic germ layer of cells?
c. endoderm
what distinguishes the cortical rotation from the cortical reaction?
d.the CRo establishes the grey crescent, the CRe establishes the fertilization envelope
to achieve a totipotent cell using the technique of nuclear transplantation....
e. the nucleus of a somatic cell is inserted in an egg cell that has been enucleated
a deformity in the formation of the spinal column of a frog might result due to mutations occuring in....
c. somites
the outer to inner pattern of different germ layers...
ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
a researcher creats a frog embryo mutant in which the beta catenin gene is "knocked out". the result will likely be...
c. dorsal lip function
the blastopore opening is formed in a sea urchin embryo by
c. invagination of surface cells at the vegetal pole
for a molecular signal to evoke a specific cellular response, it must first interact with a .....
e. receptor
which is NOT an accurate comparison between a blastula and a morula?
b. the cells comprising a morula are small
what is the role of cadherins during neurulation?
e. binding between neighboring cells
gastrulation in a frog embryo begins with....
b. invagination of surface cells into the blastocoel
inducing signal molecules whose effect may vary depending on their concentrations are called ......
e. morphogens
a blastula stage embryo is likely to have a reduced blastocoel if the female gamete was....
a. mesolecithal
cells forming the neural plate are directly induced by......
e. the notochord
differentiated cell types first appear during........
e. gastrulation
the correct orientation of digits in a vertebrate limb is controlled by......
d. Shh induction originating from the ZPA
what occurs at a ribosome?
e. translation of mRNA
gas exchange in some vertebrate embryos is facilitated by the ......
a. chorion
which of the following contain terms that belong together?
d. sea urchin, microlecithal, holoblastic cleavage
what might result if a transplatation experiment produces a frog gastrula with two dorsal lip organizers?
d. a second spinal cord
in a vertebrate ovaries and testes are derived from....
e. mesoderm
what term describes molecules present in an unfertilized egg cell that functions as signals that direct early embryonic development?
b. cytoplasmic determinants
endoderm tissue gives rise to which structure during embryonic development?
d. the archenteron
loosely packed DNA such as ------------- is more likely to be -----------.
a. euchromatin;transcribed
codon-anticodon recognition and binding occurs between
d. mRNA and tRNA
in some vertebrate embryos, the apical ridge is responsible for establishing.......
d. the correct proximal distal arrangement of limb bones
what is the primarily lacking at the end of gastrulation in a frog embryo?
b. a blastocoel
which of the following reflect a correct sequence leading up to the fast block of polyspermy in a sea urchin?
acrosomal reaction, fusion of gamete cell membranes. membrane depolarization
a loss of cell adhersion plays a role in which process?
b. ingression
which of the following allow mesoderm cells to recognize ectoderm cells?
e. cadherins
all of the following are examples of embryonic cell movement except...
b. induction
once a frog gastrula is formed, ---------- follows.
d. organogenesis
which of the following best describes the developmental role of bicoid?
it is a cytoplasmic determinant that helps establish the anterior posterior axis of the fly embryo
which is not an amniote?
d frog
a fertilized egg most closed describes a -----------.
e. a zygote
which of the following sets of terms reflect correct association?
e. microlecithal egg- microblastic cleavage
how do the daughter cells at the end of meoisis 1 and cytogenesis compare with their parent cell when it was in g1 of the cell cycle?
the daughter cell have half the number of chromosomes and the same amount of DNA
when can chromosomes be composed of two chromatids during the cell cycle of a skin cell
during g2 through metephase
the presence of a functional SRY gene in a human beings genome is responsible for -------------.
human males having testes
because of an error in meiosis that occured with one parent, a mating resulted in a triploid zygote. if the normal diploid number for the species is 42, the them triploid zygote has?
21 triplets of homologous chromosomes
assume that in cats a crooked tail is caused by autosomal recessive allele. a male and female cat, each with normal tails, have previously had a litter with some kittens with crooked tails. what is the probability that the sametwo parents will produce two normal females or two normal males?
5/32
cystic fibrosis affects the lungs, the panceas, the digestive system, and other organs, resulting in symptoms ranging from breathing difficulties and infections. which of the following best describes this?
pleiotrophy
crossing over refers too
exchanging corresponding gene loci between homologous pairs
which of the following is true of a species that has a chromosome number 2n=16
each cell has 8 homologous pairs
if possible, a cell will repair any damage DNA that it has during
during g0 phase of the cell cycle
wuth human blood type AB, the A and B allele are said to be
codominant
an example of a human polygenic trait is
skin color
severe combined immunodeficiency disease
X linked recessive
congenital generalized hypertrichosis
x link dominant
sickle cell disease
autosomal recessive
klinefelter syndrome
aneuploidy
neurofibromomatosis
autsomal dominant
down syndrome
aneulploidy
which is NOT true for a karyotype prepared from a fetus' skin cell obtained by amniocentesis?
it can reveal the embryos genotype for a particular trait
if a species diploid number is 32 then how many chromosomes are present in a cell undergoing metaphase 1?
64
when does independent assortment of chromosome pairs occur?
metaphase 1 of meosis
whichof the following is true for the components of MPF?
the concentration of cyclin gradually increases leading up to the g2 checkpoint
which of the following is TRUE regarding the p53 gene?
it is a tumor supressing gene restricting passage through the g1 checkpoint
during meiosis the law of segregation refers to
homologous chromosomes separating into gametes
which is not true of cancer cells?
their mutated TSGs inhibit cell division
a woman with normal blood clotting factor has a hemophiliac father. if she begins a family with a man whose mother was a homophiliac, then what us the probability that they will have a hemophiliac son and a homophiliac daughter?
1/16
how many genetiically different gametes can an RRBbDdEeFFGg parent make?
16
what is the probability that when you throw a pair of dice the total will be 7?
1/6
aneuploidy is caused by
disjunction
a study determined that for the past 10 years the frequency of the dominant allele for long dorsal fin in large mouth bass in Lake j has changed from .8 to .2 why?
the allele for long dorsal fin reduces fitness
who proposed that because human population growth would outstrip any increase in food production, the poor suffer more in the struggle "for existence"?
Malthus
for a trait that has two alleles which of the following mechanisms of evolution can lead to one allele being eliminated and the other allele being fixed in the gene pool?
genetic drift
what term explains why animals in two groups that do no share a recent common ancestor such as cartilaginous fish like sharks and dolphins both have streamlined bodies
convergent evolution
two species of fish live in the same pond, but cannot breed or produce fertile offspring, which species concept or definition does the exemplify?
biological species
which of the following is written correctly?
Callinectes sapidus
the appearance of a new bacterial string that is resistant to a particular antibiotic is most likely the result of -------.
a heritable gene mutation that promoted resistence, and resistant bacteria have higher fitness.
arthropods and vertebrates are not closely related evolutionary, and yet both have a pair of eyes for vision. eyes in both groups are said to be
analogous
which term represents an allele frequency in a population
q
which term represents the frequency of a heterozygote genotype in a population
2pq
bergmans rule describes a particular type of
geographic variation in phenotype
if the 80 fraggles in the population, 60 have green fur and 20 have grey fur. G fur is controlled by a dominant allele and Gr by recessive. assume HW how many fraggles are homozygous dominant?
60
assuming that extreme thiness and obesity are at least partially genetically determined, what type of natural selection is at work here?
stabilizing selection
what mechanism explains why a harmful allele may persist in a population over long periods of time?
heterozygote advantage
an elephant uses its trunk to bring food to its mouth. a human uses their hands to do that. the trunk and the hand are-------- structures.
analogous
in batesian mimicry a ----------evolves to resemble a --------.
nontoxic mimic; toxic model
"the eyes of a cave animal either lsoe thier function or dissapeaar becasue eyes are not needed in darkness" this idea of use and disuse as an explanation for evolutionary change is most closely related with
lamarck
this person wrote The principles of Geology, a volume that laid out the principles of uniformitarianism trhat supported a long million year old earth
lyell
the effectiveness of batesian mimicry is maintained by -------selection
frequency dependent selection
which of the following contributes to maintaining a balanced polymorphism for a given trait in population
disruptive selection
the correct order of groups in taxonomic hierarchy is
species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom
population of snapping shrimp that love onthe opposite side of the isthmus of panama will
each undergo microevolution and experience no gene glow
the human coccyx has no current function and is said to be ------. meaning that it was function structure in one of our ancestral species
vestigial
female zebra finches choose males with the brightest bills
intersexual
in a population of light and dark colored sunfish, as individuals of one coloration pattern becomes more numerous. predator fish like bass form a new "search image" and preferentially feed on them
frequency dependent
a population of preying mantis insects consists primarily of individuals with large mandibles for eating large prey or individuals with small mandibles for eating small prey
disruptive
the introduction of a species into a "new" area containing unfilled niches may result in evolutionary od several new species from the original stock. this process is known as
adaptive radiation
the total of alleles in a population constitutes the
gene pool
the embryological evidence for evolution is based on which observation?
the embryos of different species share a recent common ancestor begin differ more during later embryological stages
a construction worker explains that his muscles has become well developed by the type of work that he did, and therefore his son will inherit this trait. this would be supported by
lamarck
which of the following is not a factor that darwin considered in formulating his hypothesis of evolution?
mutations cause living things to change
which is an example of a population
all the wolves living in yellowstone
after studying a population for a particular trait determined by a single pair of alleles , you find that the population is not is HW. what possible reason mght explain this
individuals with the recessive phenotype are better adapted
who proposed a hypthesis of an evolutionary mechanism similar to darwins?
malthus
which of the following best defines an organisms fitness
its number of living, reproducing offspring