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67 Cards in this Set

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active site
the part of an enzyme molecule where a substrate attaches due to weak chemical bonds; typically a pocket or groove on the enzymes surface
None
active transport
movement of a substance across a membrane against its concentration gradient, helped by transport proteins and requiring input of energy
None
AIDS
Aquired immune deficiency syndrome, the late stages of HIV infection, characterized by a reduced number of T cells; usually results in death caused by opportunistic infections
bacteriophages
a virus that infects bacteria. Also called a phage
biological catalyst
enzymes are biological catalysts (catalysts are substances that accelerate chemical reactions without changing the nature of the reaction, and without being altered by it.)
None
capsid
protein coat of a virus
None
Chargaff's rule
1.) The amt of nitrogenous bases (AGCT) in DNA varies from species to species.
2.) In each of those species, A=T and C=G
None
competitive inhibition
a substance that reduced the activity of an enzyme by binding to the enzymes active site In place of the substrate; a competitive inhibitors structure mimics that of the enzymes substrate
crenate
cell shrinks (in hypertonic solutions)
None
cytoplasm
everything inside a cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus; consists of a semifluid medium and organelles
cytosol
the semifluid medium of a cells cytoplasm
denatured
<i> a process in which a protein unravels </i>, losing its specific conformation and hence function. Can be caused by changes in pH or salt concentration or by high temperature; also refers to the separation of the two strands of the DNA double helix, caused by similar factors
None
diffusion
the movement of material from a region of high concentration to low concentration
None
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid. The genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents, a double-stranded helical macromolecule consisiting of nucleotide monomers with deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases ACGT
endocytosis
the movement of materials into the cytoplasm of a cell via membranous vesicles or vacuoles
enzyme
a protein that serves as a biological catalyst, changing the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed in the process.
enzyme-substrate complex
the result of the combination of enzyme + substrate

(this occurs when the enzyme is bound to active site)
None
exocytosis
the movement of materials out of the cytoplasm of a cell via membranous vesicles or vacuoles
extracellular fluid
fluid outside the cell
None
facilitated diffusion
the passage of a substance across a biological membrane down its concentration gradient, aided by specific transport proteins
fatty acid
carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated.
None
Gene
a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA, (or RNA in some viruses). Most of the genes of a eukaryote are located in its chromosomal DNA, a few are carried by the DNA of mitochondria and chloroplasts
glycerol
the central structural component of the major classes of biological lipids,
None
HIV
Human Immunodeficiency virus, the retrovirus that attacks the numan immune system and causes AIDS
homeostasis
the steady state of body functioning, a state of equilibrium characterized by a dynamic interplay between outside forces that tend the change an organisms internal environment and the internal contron mechamisms that oppose such changes.
hypertonic
hyper- taking away water. diffuses out of the cell which shrinks
None
hypotonic
hypo means beneath. (giving away H20 - swells
None
inhibitor
a molecule which represses or prevents another molecule from engaging in a reaction
None
interstitial fluid
an aqueous solution that surrounds the body of the cells, and through whivch marterials pass back and forth between the blood and body tissues
isotonic
no net movement of water, no change in cell sizes
None
lyse
swell or burst
None
metabolism
the many chemical reactions that occur in organisms
mutagens
a chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes mutation
mutations
a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA; the ultimate source of genetic diversity
name three parts of a nucleotide
an organic monomer consisting of a 5-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
NFL
a control mechanism in whick a chemical reaction, metabolic pathway, or hormone secreting gland is inhibited by the products of the reaction, pathway, or gland. As the concentration of the products builds up, the product molecules themselves inhibit the process that produce them
non polar covalent bond
attraction between atoms that share one or more pairs of electrons equally
None
noncompetative inhibition
does not compete for the active site
None
Organelles
a structure with a specialized function within a cell
osmosis
the movement of water froma region of high concentration to low concentration thru a semipermeable membrane
None
osmotic pressure
Pressure generated by water moving by osmosis into or out of a cell
None
phagocytosis
cellular "eating"; a type of endocytosis whereby a cell engulfs macromolecules, other cells, or particles into its cytoplasm
phospholipied
a molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of of biological membranes, having a polar , hydrophilic head and a non polar hydrophibic tail
pinocytosis
cellular "drinking", a type of endocytosis in which the cell takes fluid and dissolved solutes into small membranous vesicles
plasma
the liquid matrix of the blood in which the blood cells are suspended
polar covalent bond
an attraction between atoms that share electrons unequally
None
receptor-mediated endocytosis
the movement of specific molcules into a cell by the inward budding of membranous vesicles. The vesicles contain proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being taken in.
reverse transcriptase
an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of DNA on an RNA template
RNA
ribonucleic acid. nucleic acid consisting of nucleotides, ribsoe sugar and the nitrogenous bases. ACGU. Usually single stranded, functions in protein synthesis as the genome of some viruses
None
solute
a substance that is dissolved in a solution
solvent
the dissolving agent in a solution. Water is the most versatile known solvent.
Watson & Crick
1962 - discovered that DNA is a double helix
None
what is the difference btwn prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and plant and animal cells
Prokaryotic:
-domains: bacteria and archea
-lack a membrane bound nucleus
- smaller in size
- simpler than eukaryotic

Eukaryotic:
-domain: eukarya
-includes: fungi, protists, plants, and animal cells
None
Describe the differences between DNA and RNA.
DNA: form genetic material within cells (and has thymine)

RNA: protein synthesis ( has uracil instead of thymine)
Which solution has the greatest osmotic pressure?
wherever there is more solutes
Describe the three types of passive transports.
Diffusion
Osmosis
Facilitated diffusion
What is the pH of blood?
8
What is the pH of the stomach?
2
Factors that affect the rate of enzyme activity (5)
temperature, pH (7.35-7.45), inhibitors, concentration of enzymes, concentration of substrate
Describe the following action:

E + S -> ES -> E + P
enzyme + substrate -> enzyme substrate complex -> enzyme + product
What was the inorganic catalyst in the lab?
iron
What was the organic catalyst in the lab?
catalase
What is homeostasis and how negative feedback loops maintain it.
Homeostasis is the state of equilibrium within an organisms internal environment. The negative feedback loop
7 Parameters that are regulated by homeostatic mechanisms.
oxygen
glucose
water
salt
ph
temperature
blood pressure
Why is HIV called a retrovirus
Carries the enzyme reverse transriptase in order to create DNA from its RNA.
What role does helicase and DNA polymerase play in DNA replication?
helicase: unwinding and unzipping of H bonds between base pairs

DNA polymerase: new complimentary nucleotides are paired.
Describe how DNA replicates
DNA replicates via mitosis and meiosis