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25 Cards in this Set

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smallest unit of matter that cannot be broken down by chemical means
atom
substance made of only one kind of atom and is therefore a pure substance
element
substance made of the joined atoms of two or more different elements
compound
group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
molecule
an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons
ion
attraction between substances of the same kind
cohesion
attraction between different substances
adhesion
mixture in which one or more substances are evenly distributed in another substance
solution
compounds that form hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
acid
compounds that reduce the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
base
organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportion of 1:2:1
carbohydrate
building blocks of carbohydrates that are single sugars, such as glucose and fructose
monosaccharide
nonpolar molecules that are not soluble in water
lipid
chain of molecules called amino acids linked together like pearls on a necklace
protein
building blocks of proteins
amino acid
long chain off smaller molecules called nucleotides
nucleic acid
composes a nucleic acid and contains three parts: a sugar, a base, and a phosphate group, which contains phosphorus and oxygen atoms
nucleotide
consists of two strands of nucleotides that spiral around each other
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
consists of a single strand of nucleotides
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
a single nucleotide with two extra energy-storing phosphate groups
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
capacity for doing work; the ability to move or change matter
energy
amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
activation energy
substance that speeds up a chemical reaction
enzyme
the substance on which an enzyme acts during a chemical reaction
substrate
site on an enzyme that attaches to a substrate
active site