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99 Cards in this Set

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endosymbiont
An organism that lives inside the body of another kind of organism. Endosymbionts may benefit their host (mutualism) or harm their host (parasitism).
autotroph
An organism that synthesizes complex organic compounds from simple inorganic raw materials; also called producer or primary producer. Compare with heterotroph. See chemoautotroph and photoautotroph.
aerobe
can only multiply in presence of Oxygen molecule
anaerobe
Organism that grows or metabolizes only in the absence of molecular oxygen. See facultative anaerobe and obligate anaerobe. Compare with aerobe.
heterotroph
An organism that cannot synthesize its own food from inorganic raw materials and therefore must obtain energy and body-building materials from other organisms. Also called consumer.
protobionts
Assemblages of organic polymers that spontaneously form under certain conditions. Protobionts may have been involved in chemical evolution.
serial endosymbiosis
The hypothesis that certain organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts originated as symbiotic prokaryotes that lived inside other, free-living prokaryotic cells.
2 prokaryotic domains:
bacteria and archaea
archaea
Prokaryotic organisms with a number of features, such as the absence of peptidoglycan in their cell walls, that set them apart from the bacteria. Archaea is the name of one of the two prokaryotic domains.
bacteria
Prokaryotic organisms that have peptidoglycan in their cell walls; most are decomposers, but some are parasites and others are autotrophs. Bacteria is the name of one of the two prokaryotic domains.
binomial system of nomenclature
genus & specific epithet
clade
A group of organisms containing a common ancestor and all its descendants; a monophyletic group.
cladistics
An approach to classification based on recency of common ancestry rather than degree of structural similarity. Also called phylogenetic systematics
cladogram
A branching diagram that illustrates taxonomic relationships based on the principles of cladistics
order of groups for classification
DKPCOFGS: Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species: Distant Kings Play Chess On Fine Golden Sand
domain
(1) A structural and functional region of a protein. (2) The broadest taxonomic category; each domain includes one or more kingdoms.
eukaryote
An organism whose cells have nuclei and other membrane-enclosed organelles. Includes protists, fungi, plants, and animals.
evolutionary systematics
An approach to classification that considers both evolutionary relationships and the extent of divergence that has occurred since a group branched from an ancestral group
fungi
A heterotrophic eukaryote with chitinous cell walls and a body usually in the form of a mycelium of branched, threadlike hyphae. Most are decomposers; some are parasitic.
homoplasy
Similarity in the characters in different species that is due to convergent evolution, not common descent. Characters that exhibit such similarity are called homoplastic features. (opp. of homologous features)
convergent evolution
The independent evolution of structural or functional similarity in two or more distantly related species, usually as a result of adaptations to similar environments.
how many kingdoms?
6
how many domains?
3
monophyletic
A group of organisms that evolved from a common ancestor.
outgroup
In cladistics, a taxon that represents an approximation of the ancestral condition; the outgroup is related to the ingroup (the members of the group under study) but separated from the ingroup lineage before they diversified.
paraphyletic
A group of organisms made up of a common ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants.
parsimony
the simplest solution is probably the correct one
phylogeny
The complete evolutionary history of a group of organisms
polyphyletic group
A group made up of organisms that evolved from two or more different ancestors.
protists
One of a vast kingdom of eukaryotic organisms, primarily unicellular or simple multicellular; mostly aquatic.
shared derived characters
Homologous traits found in two or more taxa that are present in their most recent common ancestor but not in earlier common ancestors.
bacillus
A rod-shaped bacterium.
bacteriophage
A virus that infects a bacterium (literally, “bacteria eater”). Also called phage.
budding is a characteristic of
characteristic of yeasts and certain other organisms.
capsid
protein coat surrounding the nucleic acid of a virus
capsule (3 definitions)
(1) The portion of the moss sporophyte that contains spores. (2) A simple, dry, dehiscent fruit that develops from two or more fused carpels and opens along many sutures or pores to release seeds. (3) A gelatinous coat that surrounds some bacteria.
chemoautotroph- what is it? who uses it?
obtains energy from inorganic compounds and synthesizes organic compounds from inorganic raw materials; includes some bacteria.
chemoheterotroph- what is it? who uses it?
Organism that uses organic compounds as a source of energy and carbon; includes animals, fungi, and many bacteria.
chemotroph definition
Organism that uses organic compounds or inorganic substances, such as iron, nitrate, ammonia, or sulfur, as sources of energy.
coccus (cocci)
A bacterium with a spherical shape.
commensalism
A type of symbiosis in which one organism benefits and the other one is neither harmed nor helped.
conjugation
(1) A sexual process in certain protists that involves exchange or fusion of a cell with another cell. (2) A mechanism for DNA exchange in bacteria that involves cell-to-cell contact.
decomposers
Microbial heterotrophs that break down dead organic material for energy. also called saprotrophs or saprobes.
endotoxin
A poisonous substance in the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria.
facultative anaerobe
able to go from cellular respiration when Oxygen is present, to fermentation when it isn't available (ex: yeast)
Koch's postulates
A set of guidelines used to demonstrate that a specific pathogen causes specific disease symptoms
lysogenic conversion
The change in properties of bacteria that results from the presence of a prophage.
obligate anaerobe
organism that grows only in the absence of oxygen.
photoautotroph
energy from light and synthesizes organic compounds from inorganic raw materials; includes plants, algae, and some bacteria
photoheterotroph
organism that can carry out photosynthesis to obtain energy but cannot fix carbon dioxide and therefore requires organic compounds as a carbon source; includes some bacteria.
plasmid
Small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that carries genes separate from those in the main DNA of a cell.
prion
An infectious agent that consists only of protein.
prophage
Bacteriophage nucleic acid that is inserted into the bacterial DNA.
retrovirus
An RNA virus that uses reverse transcriptase to produce a DNA intermediate, known as a DNA provirus, in the host cell.
spirillium
A long, RIGID, helical bacterium.
spirochete
A long, FLEXIBLE, helical bacterium.
temporate virus
A virus that integrates into the host DNA as a prophage.
transduction
(1) The transfer of a genetic fragment from one cell to another, e.g., from one bacterium to another, by a virus. (2) In the nervous system, the conversion of energy of a stimulus to electrical signals
transformation
1) The incorporation of genetic material into a cell, thereby changing its phenotype.
vibrio
A spirillum (spiral-shaped bacterium) that is shaped like a comma.
viroid
A tiny, naked, infectious particle consisting only of nucleic acid.
virus
A tiny pathogen consisting of a core of nucleic acid usually encased in protein and capable of infecting living cells; a virus is characterized by total dependence on a living host.
actinopods
Protozoa characterized by axopods that protrude through pores in their shells.
amoeba
A unicellular protozoon that moves by means of pseudopodia.
apicomplexan
A group of parasitic protozoa that lack structures for locomotion and that produce sporozoites as infective agents; malaria is caused by this. Also called sporozoa.
axopods
Long, filamentous, cytoplasmic projections characteristic of actinopods.
blade
The thin, expanded part of a leaf.
brown algae contains...
contain the pigments chlorophyll a and c, and carotenoids, including fucoxanthin.
cellular slime mold
A phylum of funguslike protists whose feeding stage consists of unicellular, amoeboid organisms that aggregate to form a pseudoplasmodium during reproduction
ciliate
A unicellular protozoon covered by many short cilia.
coenocyte
An organism consisting of a multinucleate cell, i.e., the nuclei are not separated from one another by septa
diatoms
A usually unicellular alga that is covered by an ornate, siliceous shell consisting of two overlapping halves; an important component of plankton in both marine and fresh waters.
diplomonads
Small, mostly parasitic zooflagellates with one or two nuclei, no mitochondria, and one to four flagella.
foraminiferan
A marine protozoon that produces a shell, or test, that encloses an amoeboid body.
holdfast
The basal structure for attachment to solid surfaces found in multicellular algae.
mycelium
The vegetative body of most fungi and certain protists (water molds); consists of a branched network of hyphae
oospore
A thick-walled, resistant spore formed from a zygote during sexual reproduction in water molds
opisthokont
A member of a clade of eukaryotes, including certain protists (choanoflagellates), fungi, and animals; flagellate cells in this group have a single, posterior flagellum.
radiolarians
Those actinopods that secrete elaborate shells of silica
sporangium
A spore case, found in plants, certain protists, and fungi.
stipe
A short stalk or stemlike structure that is a part of the body of certain multicellular algae.
fungi
A heterotrophic eukaryote with chitinous cell walls and a body usually in the form of a mycelium of branched, threadlike hyphae. Most fungi are decomposers; some are parasitic.
ascocarp
The fruiting body of an ascomycete.
ascomycete
Member of a phylum of fungi characterized by the production of nonmotile asexual conidia and sexual ascospores.
ascospore
One of a set of sexual spores, usually eight, contained in a special spore case (an ascus) of an ascomycete
basidiocarp
The fruiting body of a basidiomycete, e.g., a mushroom.
basidiomycete
Member of a phylum of fungi characterized by the production of sexual basidiospores
basidiospore
One of a set of sexual spores, usually four, borne on a basidium of a basidiomycete.
basidium
The clublike spore-producing organ of basidiomycetes that bears sexual spores called basidiospores.
cell walls of mushrooms made of
chitin
dikaryotic
Condition of having two nuclei per cell (i.e., n+n), characteristic of certain fungal hyphae.
gills
The spore-bearing, platelike structures under the caps of mushrooms.
haustorium
In parasitic fungi, a specialized hypha that penetrates a host cell and obtains nourishment from the cytoplasm.
karyogamy
The fusion of two haploid nuclei; follows fusion (plasmogamy) of cells from two sexually compatible mating types.
mycorrhizae
Mutualistic associations of fungi and plant roots that aid in the plant’s absorption of essential minerals from the soil.
mycotoxins
Poisonous chemical compounds produced by fungi, e.g., aflatoxins that harm the liver and are known carcinogens
septum
A cross wall or partition, e.g., the walls that divide a hypha into cells.
thallus
The simple body of an alga, fungus, or nonvascular plant that lacks root, stems, or leaves
yeast
A unicellular fungus (ascomycete) that reproduces asexually by budding or fission and sexually by ascospores.