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143 Cards in this Set

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IF plants absorb water in their roots, how does the water get to the leaves near the top of large elm and cotton wood trees?
a
ahint
PLANT ANATOMY
Why do some plants have green stems?
b
bhint
PLANT ANATOMY
How are conifers able to retain their leaves throught the winter where as other plants shed their leaves
c
chint
PLANT ANATOMY
How are the roots designed to absorb maximum amount of water and nutrients?
d
dhint
PLANT ANATOMY
Of the two types of roots, taproots and fibrous roots, which do you think is the more efficient at water absorption? why?
e
ehint
PLANT ANATOMY
If you were comparing the root system to a system in your body, which would it be?
f
fhint
PLANT ANATOMY
Roots have a hard job pushing through hard, often rocky soil. What is it that prevents damage to the growing, apical part of the root tip?
the root cap, it is a protective cover
ghint
PLANT ANATOMY
What is the function of a root hair?
h
hhint
PLANT ANATOMY
What is the function of the cortex?
i
ihint
PLANT ANATOMY
What is the function of the precambium?
j
jhint
PLANT ANATOMY
As cells grow and develop, they also begin to differentiate . What does this mean?
Cell differentiation is the process which young, immature (unspecialized) cell take on individual characteristics and reach their mature (specialized form and function so...essentially the acquire a "type")
unspecialize --- specialized
PLANT ANATOMY
What is the function of the epidermis?
out protective layer of a plant helps prevent injury and minimizes water loss by evaporation
protective layer
PLANT ANATOMY
What is the function of the amyloplasts?
non-pigmented organelles foundin plant cells responsible for the storage of starch through the polymer zonation of glucose
stores glucose
PLANT ANATOMY
What is the function of endodermis?
the differentiated, innermost layer of the cortex of roots, rhizomes and certain non-seed bearing vascular plants stems (separates cortical cells from cells of pericycle)
separates cortical cells from cells of pericycle
PLANT ANATOMY
What is the function of pericycle?
a tissue typically of roots which is found between the endoderm and the phloem, which gives rise to branch roots
between the endoderm and phloem
PLANT ANATOMY
What is the function of xylem?
the supporting layer of tissue in vascular plants that conduct water and nutrients from the roots to other parts of the plant
conducts water and nutrients
What is the function of the phloem?
the food-conducting tissue of a plant, made up of sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem parenchyma and fibers
conducts food
What is the axillary bud?
an axillary bud is a bud formed in the upper angle between a twig or a petiole and the stem
between the twig and stem
What is the shoot apical meristem?
undifferentiated tissue, located within the shoot tip, generally appearing as a shiny dome-like structure distal to the youngest leaf primordium
dome-like structure
What can annual rings tell you about the weather in the past?
the size of the the rings can tell you if there was a drought if it was a particularily wet season
drought/wet
What does bark consist of?
cork, cambium, secondary phloem and vascular cambium
cork cambium phloem
PLANT ANATOMY
If your twig has side brances, where did they originate from?
axillary bud
AB
PLANT ANATOMY
What are the three leaf shapes?
plamate, pinnate, parallel
maple leaf, fern, ivy?
PLANT ANATOMY
What is the function of the cuticle?
a waxy or varnish-like layer covering the outer surface of the leaves - prevents moisture loss
covers the leaves
PLANT ANATOMY
What is the function of the pallisade mesophyll
elongated parenchyma cells found in the ground tissue of leaves, contain many chloroplasts and performs most photosynthesis
performs photosynthesis
PLANT ANATOMY
What is the function of the stomata?
the pore openings underneath the plant leaves that can open and close according to the metabolic need of the plant. They are ports for exchange of oxygen and CO2 for photosynthesis, but also release excess H2O into the air
pore openings
PLANT ANATOMY
What is the function of the guard cells?
specialized crescent-shaped cells that control the opening and closing of a stomata
controls opening and closing ot stomata
PLANT ANATOMY
What is the function of the filaments?
threadlike...holds up anther
PLANT REPRODUCTION
What is the function of the anther?
carries pollen
PLANT REPRODUCTION
What are the two parts of the Stamen?
the filament and the anther
PLANT REPRODUCTION
What does the pistal/carpel consist of?
the stigma, style and ovary
PLANT REPRODUCTION
What is the function of the petal?
attract pollinators
PLANT REPRODUCTION
What is the function of the sepal?
protect bud
PLANT REPRODUCTION
What is the function of the ovule?
egg - once fertilization takes place - becomes a seed
PLANT REPRODUCTION
What is the receptacle?
flower's attachment to the stalk
PLANT REPRODUCTION
What is the stigma?
sticky surface, traps and holds pollen
PLANT REPRODUCTION
What is the style?
tube-like structure, holds up stigma
PLANT REPRODUCTION
What is contained within the ovary?
contains ovules
PLANT REPRODUCTION
What are some properties of a monocot?
one cotyledon
flower parts in 3's or multiples of 3
pollen with 1 pore
parallel veins in leaves
vascular bundles distributed throughout stem
flower parts in 3's
What are some properties of a dicot
two cotyledons
flower parts in 4s or 5s
pollen with 3 pores
net-like veins in leaves
vascular bundles in ring around stem
flowers in parts of 4's or 5's
What is double fertilization?
the fertilization process in angiosperms resulting in fusion of pollen nuclei with both sygote and the polar bodies to form the 2n embryo and the 3n endosperm
PLANT REPRODUCTION
What are the gametophytes?
gametophytes - the plant generation which gives rise to the gametos by means of mitosis
typically haploid
PLANT REPRODUCTION
Are megasprocytes haploid or diploid?
diploid
PLANT REPRODUCTION
What is the function of endosperm?
nutritive tissue that develops in the embryo sac of most angiosperms
tasty
PLANT REPRODUCTION
Where would you find starch in seeds?
cotyledons
carbohydrate!!
What is in the endosperm and why is it important in the development of the plants?
the endosperm is rich in proteins and carbohydrates that serve as food substance for the early growing embryo
nutritive
A drupe would be...
outer covering fleshy and mostly of ovary tissue; inner portion hard and story; single seed
avacado
A berry would be...
outer covering flesy and mostly of ovary tissue; inner portion fleshy
pear
A hesperidium would be...
outer skin learther and contains oils
orange
A pepo would be...
out skin is fairly thick rind with no oils
cucumber
A pome would be...
outer portion would mostly of stem tissue; many seeded
apple
PLANT REPRODUCTION
a legume would be...
outer portion fairly dry at maturity; fruit easily splits along its length
bean
PLANT REPRODUCTION
a nut would be...
outer portion hard and dry at maturity; fruit doesn't split along any seam
walnut
PLANT REPRODUCTION
a samara would be...
winged fruit
maple
PLANT REPRODUCTION
a achene would be...
the whole fruit is usually mistaken for a seed; outer portion hard and dry at maturity
milkweek
PLANT REPRODUCTION
What is the most notable structual difference between the artery and the vein?
the vein has valves to prevent backflow
CIRCULATORY
Capillaries are constucted of endothelial cells and are one cell layer thick. Why would this design be advantageous for diffusion of gasses, nutrients...
because the layer is not thick, the gasses, nutrients, etc., can diffuse across the capillaries very efficiently/fast
CIRCULATORY
Why is necessary to keep oxygenated and unoxygenated blood separate?
if they mix, the partial pressure of oxygen in blood will change
partially pressure
CIRCULATORY
What important function do the heart valves perform?
prevent backflow
back flow...
CIRCULATORY
Notice the thickness of the heart wall. In what chamber us the wall the thickest? Why do you believe this is so?
the left ventricle is the thickest because it has to pump blood to the whole body
pump to the body
CIRCULATORY
From the vena cava, where would a drop of blood go?
vena cava -> blood returns to the heart from body, enters right atrium -> blood enters right ventricle -> blood is pumped from the righ ventricle to lungs -> blood returns to left atrium from lungs -> blood enters left ventricle -> blood is pumped from left ventricle to body
CIRCULATORY
What happens to the pulse rate after exercise?
bpm increased with exercize because the heart is working harder to pump blood to the body
CIRCULATORY
Are cells that result from mitosis clones genetically identical?
yes
_______ carry blood away form the heart, in contrast, _______ carry blood toward the
heart.
Arteries, Veins
What body system is most comparable to that of the root system?
Circulatory System
What stage of mitosis is it when the spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes at their centromeres and move the chromosomes to the equator of the cell.
METAPHASE
What layer of the eye absorbs and converts light into signals?
Inner
Within plants is a tiny structure that allows for differentiation between monocots and dicots, what is it called?
Cotyledon
________ cells are the cells located along either side of the egg within an ovule.
SYNERGID
What is the end result of meiosis II?
4 Nuclei
What is wrong with your cornea if you have an “astigmatism”?
It’s unevenly curved
What is the name of the liquid portion of blood in humans?
Plasma
What does each of the three layers of the eye do?
Outer - protects and focuses light
Middle - is concerned with control of light and pressure
Inner - absorbs light and converts it into signals
How can you distinguish a mature pollen grain from an immature pollen grain?
Mature pollen grains have two nuclei and immature pollen grains only have one
Two major groups that angiosperms are made up of are classified as
___________ and _________.
Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons
_______are structures that are involved in the aeration of thick
stems or branches.
Lenticels
What is the smallest blood vessel in the circulatory system where gases and other molecules are exchanged between blood and tissues.
Capillary
What type of undifferentiated cells are responsible for primary growth?
Apical meristem
Whitefish blastula cells spend the majority of their lives in what stage of mitosis?
Interphase
Microsporogenesis occurs within the anthers and results in the formation of what?
Microspores
Veins always carry unoxygenated blood and arterties always carry
oxygenated blood. True or False
False
Which cycle, mitosis or meiosis, increases genetic variability?
Meiosis
Sporophytes produce _______, while gametophytes produce ________.
Spores, Gametes
During which phase of mitosis do the chromosomes condense and become visible?
Prophase
How many chromosomes are present in a human egg cell?
23
Does "crossing over" occur during mitosis or meiosis?
Meiosis
What is the major difference between fruits and vegetables?
Fruits contain seeds
Is a bean a monocot or a dicot?
Dicot
What is the most abundant type of plant on this planet?
Angiosperms (flowering plants)
Where is the main area of food production in a plant found?
Leaves
What is one of the 4 stages of mitosis?
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, or Telophase
_____ is the waxy layer that covers the epidermis on a leaf.
Cuticle
Following Meiosis in plants, Microspores eventually develop into ________ which will eventually form ______.
pollen, sperm cells
What structure joins sisters chromatids during prophase in mitosis?
Centromere
The Zone of elongation includes all of the following EXCEPT,
A: Cortex
B: Pericycle
C: Procambium
D: Protoderm
B: Pericycle
What color blindness is the most common? Which is the least common?
Red-Green is the most common and Yellow-Blue is rare
Name 2 things that occur in the Telophase II?
The nuclear membrane reappears, division occurs, 4 new nuclei are formed
Why does your heart rate increase when you exercise?
Because your muscles need more oxygen which means that your body needs more blood flow to bring that oxygen to the tissues.
What type of fertilization is taking place when the sperm fertilizes the ovule and also the polar nuclei?
Double fertilization
What is the outermost layer of cells of any multicellular organism?
Epidermis
The human heart has how many complex chambers?
4
What is the maintenance of a relatively constant physical and chemical environment within an organism?
Homeostasis
This type of circulatory system does not confine circulating fluids (hemolymph) to blood vessels?
Open circulatory system
This is a form of reproduction that results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent?
Asexual
This process of cell division results in identical (cloned) genes?
MITOSIS
During double fertilization two sperm travel down the pollen tube, one enters the embyro sac and the other sperm develops into what?
ENDOSPERM TISSUE
What area of the eye is considered the “blind spot”?
Optic disc
What pressure is the greatest during the contraction of the ventricles of the heart when blood pressure is being measured?
Systolic pressure
What are the two general types of roots found in plants?
Taproots and diffuse or fibrous roots
Which part of the body is most sensitive to touch?
Tip of Index finger.
What is the systolic number, when taking a blood pressure?
When you first hear beats.
What phase of Meiosis do the sister chromatids pull apart?
Anaphase I.
What prevents damage to the apical part of the root tip?
The Root Cap.
What are gametophyes?
A species that exhibits alternation of generation.
The chemoreceptors in a person's mouth are called what?
Taste receptors
What is the function of veins?
To carry blood back to the heart
Axillary buds may develop into what?
Branch
Somatic cells divide by which process?
Mitosis
Do ALL fruits contain seeds?
Yes
What are the pores or openings on the surface of a leaf or stem though which gas exchange occurs for photosynthesis?
Stomata
What is the first visible sign that a crossover event has taken place?
Chiasma
How many layers is the human eye composed of?
Three
Which type of blood pressure is measured during a heart contraction?
Systolic Blood Pressure
What are the special cells found in the ovules that go through meisosis?
Megasporocytes
One site of gas exchange in cellular respiration is the ________?
Lungs
The blood that is oxygen rich is in the right or left chambers of the heart?
Left
What will ovules eventually develop into if a plant is pollinated?
Zygote
What are the single layer of cells that cover the plant and protect it called?
Epidermis
Depending on their position in the meristem, when cells mature into specialized cells, they are beginning to what?
Differentiate
What is the function of the endodermis?
It separates the cortex from the vascular tissue
Which phase in mitosis takes the longest time?
Interphase
How many sperm are released in double fertilization?
Two
What are the 2 kinds of photoreceptors in the eye?
Rods and cones
If you are focusing on a distant object and it is blurred, you most likely ________?
Nearsighted
What part of the heart receives blood from the superior and inferior vena cava?
Right Atrium
In plant reproduction, what is the triploid tissue in the seed that serves as food for the developing embryo?
Endosperm
What are the cells called that change shape to open or close the stoma?
Guard cells
In what phase of meiosis does crossing over occur?
Prophase I
What is responsible for our sense of smell?
Olfactory Receptors
How does Anaphase II differ when compared to Anaphase I in meiosis?
Sister Chromatids (not homologous chromosomes) are pulled apart.
What is the main difference between arteries and veins?
Arteries: thick walls to contain oxygenated blood under high pressure
Veins: thin walls because the blood is unoxygenated under low pressure
What is another name for the center of the viewing field where there are few rods, but many cones?
Fovea
During what phase of mitosis/meiosis does actual cell division occur?
Telophase