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149 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Function of skeletal system
support muscle attachment (motion) protection, blood cell formation, calcium and phosphate storage
How many bones in body?
206 (but many are repeats)
Axial Skeleton
the bones running down middle of body
parts of Vertebral column
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, caudal, intervertebral disc
cervical
neck, will have 2 little holes on either side of big hole in middle. 7 of them
The holes in the cervical vertebrae on either side of the big hole are _____ ____?
Transverse Foramen
Thoracic vertebrae
chest, where ribs attach, 12 of them, an indention where rib attaches
Indention where ribs attach on the thoracic vertebrae?
Demi Facet
Lumbar vertebrae
lower back, tend to be biggest vertebrae, identify by lack of Transverse Forament and lack of Demi Facet.
Sacral vertebrae
fused into one bone,whole thing is sacrum, there are 5.
5 sacral = 1 sacrum
Caudal vertebrae
Tail bone
Intervertebral disc
cartilidge that is found in between verebrae
Sternum
actually 3 bones, front of chest
manubrium
knob that makes up top of sternum
gladiolus
makes up middle of sternum
Xiphiod
makes up point at bottom of sternum
Skull
made up of 28 bones, with ear or 22 bones without ear
teeth
not considered bone
4 different types of teeth
Incisors
front, top and bottom, mainly for tearing
Canine
sharp and pointed, for puncturing
Premolar
behind canine, flat for crushing
Molar
further back, flat, for crushing
Dental Formula
2-1-2-3
--------
2-1-2-3
2-1-2-3 over 2-1-2-3
Ear
3 bones in each, Stapes (shaped like stirrup), Maleus (shaped like a mallet), and Incus (shaped like a
Ribs
24 ribs (12 pair)
True ribs
attach to vertebrae and sternum, 7 pair
False ribs
attach to vertebrae and cartilidge; not directly attached to sternum, 5 pair
Floating ribs
2 pair (the bottom 2 pair of false ribs); not attached to sternum at all
Wormian bones
extra bones in Axial skeleton, most often occur around skull, can be natural but more often due to accident/trauma
Hyoid
naturally occuring wormian bone. Hold larynx and vocal cords in place and enables speech
Appendicular Skeleton
everything that hangs off of the Axial skeleton
Pectoral girdle
shoulders and arms
clavicle
collar bone
scapula
shoulder blade
humerus
upper arm
radius
forearm
mannas
hand (for humans)
carpels
hand bones
metacarpels
hand bones
phalanges
fingers
Pelvic girdle
hips and legs
ilium
top of hip bone
ischium
back/rounded part of hip bone
pubis
front of hip bone
femur
upper leg/ thigh
tibia
lower leg/ calf
fibula
lower leg/ calf
tarsal
foot bones
metatarsal
foot bones
phalange
toes
sesmoid
extra bones in appendicular skeleton
patella
knee cap
baculum
penis bone
Epiphysis
the ends of the bone, anything past the epiphysial plate
Diaphysis
everything in between the epiphysial plate (shaft)
Periosteum
living tissue on outside of bone, allows for bone to grow bigger around
Cartilidge
acts as a cushion between bones
Epiphysial plate
a seperaion/growth line toward the ends of the long bones
where is the bone marrow located?
In the bone cavity
Compact bone
where bone cells are very close together, usually toward middle. has density of about cast iron
Spongy bone
where bone cells are more porous, usually toward ends of bone. has density of about wood
Osteoblasts
bone forming cells/ building them up
Osteoclast
bone destroying cells
Osteocyte
mature bone matrix (they are the bone)
Joints
anywhere 2 bones meet
3 basic types
Immovable
called sutures - like in skull, pelvis, sternum, sacrum
Slightly moveable
sometimes called gliding joints - ribs, vertebrae, metacarpals, metatarsals
Moveable
called synovial joints
different types of moveable
hinge
movement in a single plane - elbow, knee, toes, fingers
ball and socket
allows rotation - shoulder, hip
Pivot
allows rotation in one plane - neck (atlast and axis), elbow, radius and ulna
Saddle
allows movement in 2 planes and very little movement in other planes - wrist
Ligament
connects bone to bone
Muscle
moves the bones
Tendon
Connects bone to muscle
Bone
gives structure and protection
Cartilidge
cushion in joints
Synovial filament
produce synovial fluid
Synovial fluid
lubricate joints
Fractures
Break/ crack in bone
Complete
completely broken into at least 2 pieces
Incomplete
a crack in a long the bone
Greenstick
cracked but bent
Closed (simple)
complete break that does not penetrate skin
Open (compound)
complete break that penetrates through skin
Comminuted
bone is splintered or crushed
Impacted
bone or fragment is forced into marrow cavity
Pathologic
fracture due to age or illness
Kyphosis
in Vertebrae - vertical exaggeration of the thoracic vertebrae
Lordosis
in Vertebrae - vertical exaggeration of the lumbar vertebrae
Scoliosis
in vertebrae - lateral exaggeration of any of the vertebrae
Spina bifida
usually congenital (fetus or newborn) and usually top part vertebrae is missing
Rickets
softening of bone - vitamen D defiency
Herniated disc (slipped disc)
intervertebreal disc is ruptured
Osteoporosis
weakening of bone due to lack of estergen
Hope this helps you remember what it is.
this is a picture of someone with kyphosis
Hope this will help you remember what it is
this is a picture of someone with lordosis
sesamoid
extra bones in the Appendicular system
3 functions of the Muscle System?
(1) motion
(2) Posture
(3) heat production
muscle types
skeletal, smooth, cardiac
skeletal muscle
vountary, straited, skelaton
smooth muscle
involuntary, nonstriated -- digestive tract vessels liver
cardiac muscle
involuntary, straited, heart
masseter
jaw muscle
trapezius
over collar bone to the back
deltoid
shoulder
serratus anterior
ribs in front
rectus abdominis
down middle of abdomin
quadriceps group
thigh
gluteus maximus
butt
triceps
back, upper arm
rectus
eye muscle (4)
soleus
calf muscle
diaphragm
to move lungs along ribs
orbicularis oris
mouth
sternocleidomastoid
neck
pectoris major
breast muscle
external oblique
abdomen outter side
sartorius
hip across thigh to knee
hamstring group
back thigh
latissimus dorsi
back
gastrocnemius
calf muscle
Muscular dystrophy
any # of genetic disorders and always affect the muscles only
Fibrositis
inflammation of muscle cells
Fibrosis
dead muscle replaced by connective tissue (scar tissue)
Fibrillation
uncordinated movement or contraction of muscles
Cramp
involuntary contraction of a single muscle due to tetnus
Convulsion
involuntary contraction of muscle groups (due to high fever, poison)
Spasm
involuntary contraction of a single muscle for a short duration
Trichinosis
Fibrositis due to a parositic round worm called Trichinella spp.
diaphram
what area is circle and what muscle is outlined?
gastrocnemius
what is the blue line pointing to?
gluteus maximus
what is the blue line pointing to?
hamstring group
what is the blue line pointing to?
latissimus dorsi
what is the blue line pointing to?
masseter
what is the blue line pointing to?
orbicularis oris
what is the blue line pointing to?
pectoris major
what is the blue line pointing to?
quadriceps group
what is the blue line pointing to?
rectus abdominus
what is the blue line pointing to?
rectus
what is the blue line pointing to?
sartorius
what is the blue line pointing to?
serratus anterior
what is the blue line pointing to?
soleus
what is the blue line pointing to?
trapezius
what is the blue line pointing to?
deltoid
what is the blue line pointing to?
triceps
what is the blue line pointing to?
sternocleidomastoid
what is the blue line pointing to?
External oblique
what is the blue line pointing to?