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42 Cards in this Set

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Stroma
fluid w/in a chloroplast that contains enzymes involved in the synthesis of carbs during photosynthesis
granum
stack of chlorophyll containing thylakoids in chloroplast
matrix
the inner fluid-filled space in the mitochondria. Contains DNA, ribosomes, and enzymes that break down carb products, releasing energy to used for ATP production
cristae
provides a greater surface area to accommodate the protein complexes and other participants that produce ATP. Formed by folding of inner membrane of mitochondria
cytoskeleton
internal framework of the cell, consisting of microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate filaments. Maintains cell shape and allows cell and organelles to move
motor molecules
proteins that can attach, detach, and reattach farther along an actin filament
centrosome
central microtubule organizing center of cells. In animal cells, it contains two centrioles
centrioles
short cylinders with a 9 + 0 pattern of microtubule triplets. may be involved in microtubule formation
cilium
have a 9+2 pattern of microtubules. Enables some cells to move. Hairlike projections (move in an undulating fashion or like an oar
polyribosomes
several ribosomes associated simultaneously with a single mRNA molecule
Vesicles
small, membrane-bounded sac that stores substances w/in a cell. Transports products from the ER to the Golgi Apparatus
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
membranous system of tubules, vesicles, and sacs in cells, sometimes having attached ribosomes. Rough ER has ribosomes. Physically continous w/ nuclear envelope.
nuclear pores
Pores on the nuclear envelope that proteins to pass into the nucleus and ribosomal subunits to pass out.
Eukaryotic cells
type of cell that has a membrane-bounded nucleus and organelles
nucleus
w/in eukaryotic cell. contains chromosomes and controls structure and function of the cell
Chromatin
consists of DNA and associated proteins
Chromosomes
rod like structure in the nucleus seen during cell division; contains genes
secretion
secretroy vesicles proceed to the plasma membrane, where they discharge their contents
nucleoplasm
semifluid medium of the nucleus containing chromatin
nucleolus
dark-staining, spherical body in the nucleus that produces ribosomal subunits (RNA)
nuclear envelop
double membrane that separates cytoplasm from the nucleus
lysosomes
membrane-bounded vesicles produced by the Golgi Apparatus. contains hydrolytic digestive enzymes
vacuole
a large membranous sac. More prominnet in plant cells. store substances. larger than vesicles
peroxisomes
membrane-bounded vesicles that enclose enzymes. enzyme-filled vesicle in which fatty acids and amino acids are metabolized to hydrogen peroxide that is then broken down to harmless products
chloroplasts
uses solar energy to synthesize carbohydrates. contains chlorophyll. site of photosynthesis
mitochondrion
where ATP molecules are produced during the process of cellular respiration
photosynthesis
process by which plants and algae make their own food using the energy of the sun. solar energy + carbon dioxide -> carbohydrate + oxygen
cellular respiration
the process by which the chemical energy of the carbohydrates is converted to that of ATP (energy carrier). carb + O -> carbon dioxide + water + energy
Organelles
a small, often membranous structure in the cytoplasm having a specific structure and function
cell theory
states that all organisms are made up of the basic living units called cells and that all cells come only from previously existing cells
Plasma membrane
a living boundary that separates the living contents of the cell from the nonliving surrounding environment. regulates entrance and exit of the molecules in and out of the cytoplasm
cytoplasm
the contents of a cell b/w the nucleus and the plasma membrane that contains the organelles
prokaryotic cells
a cell that lacks a membrane-bounded nucleus.
cell wall
structure that surrounds a plant, protistan, fungal, or bacteria cell and maintains the cell's shape and rigidity
Golgi apparatus
pancakes. collects, sorts, packages, and distributes materials. involved in formation of lysosomes.
Capsule/Slime layer
gelatinous layer surrounding the cell wall of some bacteria
flagellum
long, thin appendages located on some bacteria. rotating. pushes cell forward.
frimbriae
short appendages on some bacteria that help them attach to an appropriate surface
nucleoid
region of prokaryotic cells where DNA is located. not bounded by a membrane
plasmids
small accessory rings of DNA found in many prokaryotes
ribosomes
site of protein synthesis
thylakoids
flattened disk where light-dependent reactions of photosytheses occer.