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95 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is a hypothesis?
A tentative explanation based on some type of reasoning.
What is a theory?
A hypothesis that resists attempts to disprove it.
What’s an example of a testable hypothesis?
Part of a bears diet are berries.
What’s an examples un-testable hypothesis?
Aliens influence the movement of the ants in the kitchen.
What is an experiment?
A way of testing a hypothesis or of searching for some unknown effect. It is a procedure carried out under controlled conditions.
What are the components of a
Good experiment?
a testable hypothesis, control & experimental groups,and a large data pool, random selection of data pool.
What are some important characteristics of living things?
cells, reproduction, chemical reaction, requires energy, organization, respond to stimuli, grow, common ancestor.
What are the three domains of organisms?
eukarya, archea, and eubacteria.
What distinguishes the three domains from one another?
eukarya- multicellular organisms, the last domain to appear on earth.

Archea- single celled organisms, have the ability to survive in extreme conditions, the second domain to appear on earth.

Eubacteria- single celled organisms, all bacteria are fairly similar,first domain to appear on earth.
What are prokaryotes?
The domains of eubacteria, and archea. Cells that have no Membrane enclosed nucleus.
What are the four kingdoms of eukarya?
protista, plantae, fungi, animalia
How do eukaryotes and prokaryotes differ from each other?
eukaryotes cells contain a nucleus and about 20 different Kinds of organelles, while prokaryotes cells have no nucleus or organelles.
What is evolution?
Change in the genetic composition of organisms over time.
What is natural selection?
One mechanism of evolution that acts on traits that have a genetic basis.
Why is intelligent design not science?
The idea of intelligent design is not science because its foundation
contains an un-testable hypothesis.
What is a control?
A version of the experiment in which everything is the same except for the one thing being tested.
What is DNA?
Deoxyribonucleic acid, it contains coded instructions for building different kinds of proteins.
What is an adaptation?
Structure or behavior that improves an organisms ability to survive and reproduce.
What is acclimation?
The ability of an individual to adjust to environmental conditions.
What are genes?
The unit of inheritance, it carries detailed information about the molecular parts of an organism.
What is a nucleus?
A package of genetic material enclosed in a thin membrane.
What are organelles?
Exist in eukaryotic cells, they are little membrane enclosed parts.
What is treatment?
A variable that is changed or tested in an experiment.
What is a model?
A conceptual understanding of of a particular idea (a hypothesis or explanation).
For a plant how does an aquatic environment differ from an Terrestrial environment?
Water- light diminishes with depth,abundant H2O, freezing temperatures are less of a problem, nutrients are more diluted, CO2 is more diluted

Land- abundant light, possibly limited water, freezing temperatures are more likely, CO2 is more abundant
What types of adaptations are
necessary for a plant to have in order to live in a terrestrial enviroment?
strong cell wall- for structural support

development of a vascular system- to move water.
What are the four basic types of Cell tissue?
dermal, ground, vascular, and meristem tissues
What is dermal tissue?
It serves as protection for what moves in and out of the cell. It contains stomata, and cuticles.
What is ground tissue?
The bulk of cells in a plant, the lignin gives support to the cell. This tissue is located in between the dermal and vascular tissue.
What is vascular tissue?
Moves materials through the plant through two types of cells xylem and phloem.
What is meristem tissue?
Two types apical and lateral, they simply are cells that divide to create new cells.
What is xylem?
A type of vascular tissue that moves water and minerals up from the roots. Also known as tracheid.
What is phloem?
A type of vascular tissue that moves sugar down from the leaves. Also known as sieve tubes. Uses companion cells to actively transport sugars in and out of the sieve tubes.
What basic components are Necessary for photosynthesis?
Sunlight, CO2, and H2O
Where does a plant get each of the components for photosynthesis from?
sunlight-from the sun.

CO2- from the air which is absorbed through the stomata in leaves.

H2O- from the ground through the roots driven by transpiration.
What are the products of
glucose and O2.
Where do the products of Photosynthesis end up?
the oxygen is released into the air through the stomata, and the glucose is stored for respiration.
Why does a plant carry out
to synthesize sugar and store it within a sink.
What types of adaptations do plants have to avoid being eaten?
some plants produce lignin which makes them woody giving them protection (as well as support), and other plants produce odors and toxins to repel predators (usually insects).
Describe the path a water molecule Takes from the soil through the plant to the atmosphere?
water molecules are sucked up from the roots of a plant by the process of transpiration. The water molecules move up by the xylem (vascular tissue) to the leaves and are released as gaseous water out of the stomata.
What is the transpiration-photosynthesis compromise?
in order to acquire CO2 for photosynthesis the stomata open causing water to be lost.
How does a plant control transpiration?
the plant can increase the rate of transpiration and photosynthesis by opening the stomata and decreases the rate by closing them.
How do stomata open?
The stomata open by the guard cells allowing potassium ions to be pumped in from adjacent epidermis cells and chloride Ions and water follows rapidly by osmosis which swell the and cause them to open.
How do stomata close?
The stomata close when water becomes scarce the plant increases production of abscisic acid which limits the flow of potassium ions Into the stomata and the cells loose water and the stomata close.
What is a source?
A site were photosynthesis occurs such as leaves.
What is a sink?
A area that actively uses sugars such as root tips, shoots, young leaves, and fruits.
What is interesting about a potato?
A potato is a sink in the summer as it accumulates carbohydrates and a source in the spring when it provides the plant with energy For the new growing season.
How do sugars move in a plant?
From the leaves down the phloem from a source to a sink.
Explain the pressure flow hypothesis?
The idea there are sources and sinks and the companion cells are responsible for creating the differences in pressure within the phloem.
What is a cell wall?
A external rigid structure surrounding all plant cells and most prokaryotes.
What is cellulose?
A polysaccharide made by plants; the major structure of wood,cotton, and paper.
What is lignin?
A major component of cell walls that provide support and help transport water.
What are secondary plant
chemicals that serve a defensive purpose.
What is transpiration?
when plants pull water from the soil through the roots and release it as vapor through the stomata in the leaves.
What is osmosis?
Movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane via a concentration gradient.
What is mesophyll?
Green parenchymal cells that are responsible for much of a cells photosynthesis.
What is chloroplast?
A large green membrane enclosed organelle that performs photosynthesis.
What is a companion cell?
A parenchyma cell that supplies the pheloem with sugars.
What is the endodermis?
In vascular plants it is the inner most layer of the cortex in roots And stems.
What is adhesion?
Two different molecules that attract each other. Example water sticks to xylem as it travels upward.
What is cohesion?
Two of the same molecules that attract each other. Example water molecules stick to each other as they travel up the xylem.
Describe the four steps of the cohesion-tension theory?
transpiration- evaporation of water through stomata

transpiration creates pressure to drive water up through xylem.

cohesion keeps water molecules together

creates pressure to pull water from soil.
Why do organisms carry out
in order to use energy to live and grow.
What are the necessary components of respiration?
glucose, and O2.
Where does a plant get the components of respiration from?
glucose and O2 are products of photosynthesis.
What are the products of
CO2 and H2O.
Where do the products of
respiration end up?
they are released in the gaseous state through the stomata.
What is the difference between active transport and osmosis and were do they occur?
Active transport requires energy to carry out a process, it occurs when the K+ ions are pumped from the guard cells into the Stomata. While osmosis does not require energy to occur, it happens when water is pumped into the stomata across the concentration gradient.
What is a biome?
A geographical region with a distinctive landscape, climate, and community of plants and animals.
What is a ecosystem?
All the living (biotic) and non living (abiotic) parts of a defined Area.
What are communities?
Interacting groups of species that inhabit a area.
What are populations?
A breeding group of individuals of the same species that inhabit a common area.
What are organisms?
Living things such as bacterium, plants, and animals.
What are cells?
The smallest metabolic unit of life.
What are molecules?
A specific combination of individual atoms held together by covalent bonds.
What are atoms?
The smallest unit of matter that still has the properties of an element.
What are the essential components of an ecosystem?
source of energy, an autotroph, water and chemical elements to support life, a hetrotroph (consumer, decomposer).
What is a food chain?
A sequence in which consumers eat either producers or other consumers.
What is a food web?
The collection of all the interacting food chains of an ecosystem.
What are trophic levels?
The number of steps away from an energy source.
What are the three main sources of energy in an ecosystem and What type are they?
sunlight- kinetic
chemical- potential (biomass)
heat- kinetic
How are the three sources involved in photosynthesis?
sunlight- during photosynthesis

chemical- sugar produced during photosynthesis stored in biomass.

heat- some heat is released during photosynthesis.
What is a pyramid of energy?
A graphic presentation of the total energy of organisms at each trophic level of an ecosystem.
Why is a terrestrial pyramid of energy always pointing upward?
because as you progress through each trophic level more and more energy is lost. There fore there is less available energy at each Trophic level.
What are the main natural factors That could increase or decrease CO2 concentration in the atmosphere?
Respiration (from: plants, animals, and soil)


Burning fossil fuels
What are the major human impacts on The carbon cycle?
humans have drastically increased the yearly carbon dioxide production by burning fossil fuels.
How are organisms involved
biogeochemical cycles of carbon and water?
in the in the ways they interact with the atmosphere.
What is a pyramid of biomass?
A graphic representation of the total mass of organisms at each trophic level of an ecosystem.
What is the ten percent rule?
Each trophic level passes on 10% of its energy to the next trophic level.
What are producers?
Organisms, such as plants that harvest energy directly from sunlight.
What are consumers?
Organisms, such as animals that obtain energy by eating producers or other consumers.
What are decomposers?
Organisms, such as bacteria or fungus, that live on energy from complex molecules of dead organisms.
What are autotrophs?
Organisms that create their own food.
What are hetrotrophs?
Organisms that rely on other organisms for energy.
What is primary production?
The energy in the first trophic level.