Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/59

Click to flip

59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In humans, lactic acid provides rapid bursts of ATP in what type of cells, even if there is a limited oxygen supply?
Muscle Cells
Lactate is _______ to cells.
Toxic
At first, blood carries lactate away; then builds up causing muscles to do what?
Fatigue and cramp
Lactic acid causes the body to develop an ___________ and the _________ must convert lactate to pyruvate.
"Oxygen debt"; liver
What type of cells carry on the most fermentation of lactic acid?
Muscle Cells
___________________ is a series of carriers that accept the electrons removed from glucose.
Electron Transport Chain
The Electron transport chain occurs inside mitochondria in the ________.
Cristae
The electrons from the electron transport chain are passed from carrier to carrier to eventually produce ________ and 32-34 ____.
Water; ATP
The Electron transport chain is the metabolic process that produces the most ____.
ATP
__________ is the breaking down of molecules.
Catabolism
Catabolism results in an ATP buildup that is used by _______.
Anabolism
________ is the building up of molecules.
Anabolism
_______ can synthesize all the amino acids they need
Plants
Humans cannot make 9 amino acids, so the _________________ must supply them in the diet.
Essential Amino Acids
Photosynthesis converts solar energy into the chemical energy of a what?
Carbohydrate
Plants, algae, and some bacteria perform phosynthesis; they're called ___________.
Producers
Photosynthesis occurs where?
Chloroplasts
Oppenings called __________ allow gases to enter the center of a leaf where ____________ cells contain the chloroplasts; water reaches these cells from vessels that extend to the roots.
Stomata; Mesophyll Cells
Solar energy + 6CO2 + 6H2O => C6H1206 +602
Photosynthesis equation
Water molecules are ______.(In photosynthesis)
Oxidized
Carbondioxide is ________. (In photosynthesis)
Reduced
Electrons from water are energized by what? (In photosynthesis)
Solar Energy
Photosynthesis has 2 sets of reactions:

"photo"= _________________
"synthesis"= _______________
Light dependent reactions; Calvin cycle reactions
Thylakoids are stracked to form what?
Grana
Grana are surrounded by the what?
Stroma
Enzymes in the fluid filled stroma reduce carbon dioxide and the ________ cycle occurs in the stroma.
Calvin Cycle
Light reaction occurs in the ________ membrane.
Thylakoid membrane
________________: method of producing ATP which is tied to an electrochemical gradient in the thylakoid.
Chemiosmosis
Enzymes in the fluid filled _________ reduce carbon dioxide and the Calvin Cycle occurs here.
Stroma
Chewed food is mixed with saliva into a ______ for swallowing.
Bolus
salivary ________: is an enzyme that starts starch digestion.
amylase
food going the "wrong way": the ________ & __________ closes off the nasopharynx and the ________ covers the glottis forcing the bolus down the esophagus.
Soft palate & Uvula; epiglottis
_____________:

1. muscular tube that conducts food bolus from pharynx to the stomach
2.no role in chemical digestion
3. movement only
Esophagus
The rhythmic contraction in the esophagus is called what?
Peristalsis
Where does the stomach recieve the food from?
The Esophagus
What enzyme starts protein digestion in the stomach?
pepsin
The stomach acts on food mechanically and chemically to produce the soupy ______.
chyme
Another name for the small intestine is what?
Duodenum
The small intestine has a large surface area for absorption due to what?
Villi
Glucose and amino acids are absorbed in to the ________________ system from inside the small intestine.
Cardiovascular System
Fats are absorbed into what system from the small intestine?
Lymphatic System
The process of food digestion is complete after what organ?
The Small intestine
______: blind end of the large intestine, below the junction of the small intestine where the ______ is attached
Cecum; Appendix
_____: where defecation occurs
Anus
The large intestine does not produce ______________, but it does absorb ______, _______, and some vitamins.
Digestive enzymes; water, salts
What is the main function of the large intestine?
To absorb water, salts and some vitamines
The ________ is the largest gland in the body.
Liver
The liver stores iron and vitamines, detoxifies blood, stores glucose as __________, and regulates blood cholesterol levels
Glycogen
_________: is a yellowish tint to the whites of the eyes and also the skin. It is due to an increase in bilirubin.
Jaundice
______________ (bread, pasta) can be converted to glucose and used rapidly. Body cells can use fatty acids as an energy source but brain cells require _______.
Complex carbohydrates; glucose
_____________ (table sugar) contribute to energy needs and ____________ w/o supplying other nutrients. These are empty calories.
Simple carbohydrates; weight gain
How many essential amino acids can the body NOT make?
8
__________: organic compounds that the body can't make but needs for metabolism; many are part of coenzymes.
Vitamins
The vitamins ___, ___, and ___ are anti-oxidants that protect cell contents from damage due to _____________.
A, C, E; free radicals
_________: unstable molecules produced by cell metabolism that can donate an electron to DNA, protein, enzymes, etc. and can damage cell structures or cause cancer.
Free Radicals
Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis both utilize an ___________ chain.
Electron transport chain
Photosynthesis reduces carbon dioxide to a what??
Carbohydrate
Oxidation of water releases _________ in photosynthesis.
Oxygen
Cellular respiration oxidizes ____________, and carbon dioxide is given off. _________ is reduced to water.
Carbohydrate; Oxygen